The Western Arctic from the CBL 2002 cruise
Monday and Wednesday 11:00-12:20
OTB (Ocean Teaching Building) 205

Spring Quarter 2009 - Ocean 506B/497B - 3 credit graduate course
- an interdisciplinary perspective after IPY
(International Polar Year 2007-2009)

Prof. Jody Deming
Walters Professor
Biological Oceanography and Astrobiology
Tel: 206-543-0845
Room: 370, MSB (Marine Sciences Building)

Dr. Rebecca Woodgate
Senior (Physical) Oceanographer/
Affiliate Associate Professor
Polar Science Center/Physical Oceanography
Tel: 206-221-3268
Room: 612C, Henderson Hall, Applied Physics Laboratory
Last edited 27th May 2009
- overview
- assignments/grading
- general schedule
- timetable and topics
- lecture notes
- discussion papers
- other links
  Week 10
Monday 1st June 2009

Recent years show unprecedented change in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean.
What is currently known about the complex Arctic Ice-Ocean system and the ecosystems it supports?
What will be the impacts of continuing change within and beyond the Arctic?
 In this interdisciplinary course, we will explore the interacting physical, chemical and biological components of the Arctic System, including:
      -- riddles of Arctic Ocean circulation
      -- defining roles of the sea-ice cover
      -- likely shifts in nutrient regimes and ecosystems
      -- and recent explorations of the seafloor,
and consider the impacts of Arctic Change on global climate, native communities, and future exploitation of an ice-free summer ocean.
The aims of the course are to develop:
     -- an understanding of how the Arctic ocean system works
     -- an understanding of observed and potential changes in the Arctic and impacts of these changes in the Arctic and beyond
     -- an appreciation of why we should care about Arctic Change.
Skill development: To thrive in research (and other careers) needs skills beyond scientific data analysis, for example:
-- discerning inquiry
-- coherent communication (written and oral)
-- competence in more than one discipline.
Homework and class assignments will be aimed at developing these skills, and the art/science of productive scientific debate.

Assignments are both written and oral.  There will be no tests or final exam.

Full details of the assignments will be provided at the start of the course.
Grade: Course grade will be determined from
- 2 written homeworks (each 30% of the grade)
- 1 team-presented oral review of a published paper (20% of the grade)
- class participation, especially in the weekly paper reviews (20% of the grade).
Written Assignments: There will be two written assignments:
- the first written assignment, due end of week 5 (1st May 09), will be an essay assignment, including some literature review (reference list of at least 5 papers) and some thoughtful analysis.  We encourage you to create an original graphic, flow diagram, table, etc to help convey your analysis.
  Link to details of the first written assignment
- the second written assignment, due end of week 10 (5th June 09), will be to develop an experimental plan, suitable for an interdisciplinary 1-year IPY project.
Details (including topics from which to select) will be given during class.
  Link to details of the second written assignment
Oral Assignments:  Each Wednesday (starting week 2, but excluding weeks when written assignments are due), there will be a ~ 20-30 min student-led discussion of a published paper.  Papers will be selected (with class input) a week in advance.  Everyone should read the assigned paper before the class.  The main points of the paper will be presented by a team of students in a ~ 10 min oral presentation, to be followed by a ~ 10-20 min class debate. Each student will help to lead one such presentation during the course, and all students will be involved in the weekly class debates.  More details will be given in class.  Papers are given below.
  Link to details of the oral assignment

General schedule
Class meetings will be held  Monday and Wednesday 11:00-12:20 in OTB  205, with one notable exception:
   --  the Monday class time in Week 10 (1st June) will be devoted to a guided tour of the USCGC Healy (see below for details).
There will be no final exam. 
Office hours are available on request. 

Provisional Timetable
This is provisional timetable and syllabus.  Contact us if there are other topics you would like to see covered. 
Monday 11:00
Wednesday 11:00
Mar 30 - Apr 3
Course overview Arctic Atmospheres and Oceans

Apr 6 - 10
Sea-ice - the physics Sea-ice - continued, and climate change.
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
Apr 13 - 17
Sea-ice - biology Sea-ice - biology continued
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
Apr 20 - 24
Arctic Entrances and Exits - what goes in and out? Going round the Arctic - upper ocean circulation ...
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
Apr 27 - May 1
Upper Ocean Arctic biology Upper Ocean Arctic biology continued

- Friday 1st May
first written assignment due

May 4 - 8
.. getting things off the slope, tracers , and biology ..... over and off the shelves
"Atlantification"? - the role of Atlantic waters in the Arctic
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
May 11 - 15
Interdisciplinary case study - Arctic Polynyas: biological refuges, hotspots and bellwethers of change

.. continued, with ecosystem comparisons
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
May 18 - 22
Interdisciplinary case study - the changing Bering Sea - physical processes Bering Sea Ecosystem
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
May 25 - 29
Memorial Day -- no class -- The Arctic as others see it - far field effects of the Arctic and Arctic Change
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
Jun 1 - 5

Class visit to USCGC HEALY The human face to the Arctic - geopolitics and larger ramifications - Friday 5th June
second written assignment due

Lecture notes and links
As the class progresses, some notes/handouts from lectures will be posted here.
Papers referred to in the lectures can be accessed HERE (password protected)

Wk1 - Monday 30th March 2009:    Lecture Notes (Overview and IPY - JD) as PDF (3.1Mb)
         SEARCH (Study of Environmental Arctic Change)
         NOAA Arctic Change Detection
         NOAA Arctic Report Card (2008)
         AMSR (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer) movies of Arctic Sea-ice motion by Tom Agnew
         IPY (International Polar Year) Home page
         Papers cited in the lecture

Wk1 - Wednesday 1st April 2009:    Lecture Notes (Overview of Oceans and Atmos - RW) as PDF (1.1Mb)
         Bathymetry of the Arctic Ocean - IBCAO (International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean)
         NSIDC - National Snow and Ice Data Center
        NOAA Arctic Report Card (2008)
         Papers cited in the lecture

Wk2 - Monday 6th April 2009:    Lecture Notes (Sea-ice - RW) as PDF (1.1Mb)
         Sea ice microstructure - AWI (Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar Research)
         Formation and Decay of Arctic Sea Ice - by Wadhams, as part of NOAA Arctic Theme Page
         Papers cited in the lecture

Wk2 - Wednesday 8th April 2009:    Lecture Notes (2007 Sea-ice Loss - RW) as PDF (3Mb)
         SHEBA - Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean
         IDAO - Ice Diminished Arctic Ocean - modeling studies by Jinlun Zhang, with movies from model
         IABP - International Arctic Buoy Program (look under Data for movies)
         UIUC Cryosphere Today, images and moves from Chapman et al
         ACIA - Arctic Climate Impact Assessment
         NOAA Arctic Report Card (2008)
         NOAA Sea Ice Outlook (set of models predicting summer sea ice extent)
         Papers cited in the lecture

Wk3 - Monday 13th April 2009:    Lecture Notes (Sea-ice-Biology - JD) as PDF (5.8Mb)
         Papers cited in the lecture

Wk3 - Wednesday 15th April 2009:    Lecture Notes (Sea-ice-Biology continued - JD) as PDF (1.3Mb)
         Papers cited in the lecture

Wk4 - Monday 20th April 2009: 
Lecture Notes (Arctic Inputs and Outputs - RW) as PDF (4.4Mb)
Bering Strait - Pacific Gateway to the Arctic (Woodgate webpage)
         Chukchi Sea Circulation - UW
A year in the Physical Oceanography of the Chukchi Sea
      Papers cited in the lecture

Wk4 - Wednesday 22nd April 2009:    Lecture Notes (Arctic Upper Ocean Circulation - RW) as PDF (4.4Mb)
EWG (Environmental Working Group) Arctic Atlases (decadal climatology)
         PHC (Polar Science Center Hydrographic Climatology) - climatology of Arctic data
SBI (Shelf Basin Interaction) moorings in the Chukchi Sea
      Papers cited in the lecture

Wk5 - Monday 27th April 2009:   
     Upper Ocean Circulation  
Lecture Notes (Arctic Upper Ocean Circulation Cont - RW) as PDF (2.0Mb)
SBI (Shelf Basin Interaction) Mooring/CTD cruise in 2003
        Plueddemann Beaufort Eddies
      Papers cited in the lecture
     Upper Ocean Biology        Lecture Notes (Arctic Upper Ocean Biology - JD) as PDF (0.5Mb)
      Papers cited in the lecture

Wk5 - Wednesday 29th April 2009:   Lecture Notes (Arctic Upper Ocean Biology Cont - JD) as PDF (2.5Mb)  
      Papers cited in the lecture

Wk6 - Monday 4th May 2009:    Lecture Notes (Arctic Upper Ocean Biology - JD) as PDF (2.8Mb)  

Wk6 - Wednesday 6th May 2009:   
Lecture Notes (Atlantic Water Circulation - RW) as PDF (8.4Mb)  
      Papers cited in the lecture

Wk7 - Monday 11th May 2009:
      Atlantic Water continued: 
    Atlantic Water Papers cited in the lecture
                              Lecture Notes (Polynyas - JD) as PDF (8.1Mb)

Wk8 - Monday 18th May 2009:    
Lecture Notes (Bering Sea Physics - RW) as PDF (1.4Mb)
       Papers cited in the lecture
       NOAA Bering Climate Site
        BEST - Bering Ecosystem Study Homepage (UW)
                  - BEST homepage at Arcus
                  - Science Plan
                  - Funded projects
         BSIERP - Bering Sea Integrated Ecosystem Research Project
         BESTMAS -  Bering Sea Modelling Project (Zhang and Woodgate)
         Bering Strait observations (Woodgate et al., UW)
         Bering Sea Drifters (Weingartner et al., UAF)
         Bering Sea Green Belt (Shumacher and Stabeno)
         PDO - Pacific Decadal Oscillation from JISAO
Wk9 - Wednesday 27th May 2009:  
Lecture Notes (Global Links - RW) as PDF (2.6Mb)
       Papers cited in the lecture

Discussion papers
Links to copies of the Wednesday Discussion papers.  Note these links are password protected (for copyright reasons).  The password and user name will be given in class, or you can contact us.  See HERE for notes for oral presentations.

Paper for  WK2 Wednesday 8th April 2009 - Sea-ice physics - Amanda and Andy
      Holland, M.K., C.M.Bitz and B. Tremblay (2006), Future abrupt reductions in the summer Arctic sea ice, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L23503, doi:10.1029/2006GL02824.

Paper for  WK3 Wednesday 15th April 2009 - Sea-ice biology - Jesse and Jesse
      Rysgaard, S., R. N. Glud, M. K. Sejr, J. Bendtsen, and P. B. Christensen (2007), Inorganic carbon transport during sea ice
growth and decay: A carbon pump in polar seas, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C03016, doi:10.1029/2006JC003572.

Paper for  WK4 Wednesday 22nd April 2009 - Ocean Circulation - Anna and James
      Macdonald, R. W., E. C. Carmack, F. A. McLaughlin, K. K. Falkner, and J. H. Swift (1999), Connections among ice, runoff and atmospheric forcing in the Beaufort Gyre, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2223-2226.
Two more modern, related studies:
      Jones, E. P., L. G. Anderson, S. Jutterstrom, L. Mintrop, and J. H. Swift (2008), Pacific freshwater, river water and sea ice meltwater across Arctic Ocean basins: Results from the 2005 Beringia Expedition, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C08012, doi:10.1029/2007JC004124.
      Yamamoto-Kawai, M., F. A. McLaughlin, E. C. Carmack, S. Nishino, and K. Shimada (2008), Freshwater budget of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean, from salinity, d18O, and nutrients, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C01007, doi:10.1029/2006JC003858.

No Paper for  WK5

Paper for  WK6 Wednesday 6th May 2009 - Upper Ocean biology - Fran and Britta
Reigstad, M., C.W. Riser, P. Wassmann, and T. Ratkova (2008), Vertical export of particulate organic carbon:  Attenuation, composition and loss rates in the northern Barents Sea, Deep-Sea Research II, 55, 2308 - 2319, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.05.007

Paper for  WK7 Wednesday 13th May 2009 - Polynyas - Tom and Noel
      Ringuette, M., L. Fortier, M. Fortier, J. A. Runge, S. Belanger, P. Larouche, J-M. Weslawski, and S. Kwasniewski (2002), Advanced recruitment and accelerated population development in Arctic calanoid copepods of the North Water, Deep-Sea Research II, 49, 5081-5099.
Paper for  WK8 Wednesday 20th May 2009 - Bering Sea - Jeff and Byron
Mueter, F.J., and M.A. Litzow (2008), Sea ice retreat alters the biogeography of the Bering Sea continental shelf, Ecological Applications, 18(2), 309-310. 

Paper for  WK9 Wednesday 27th May 2009 - "Wild Card" - Ian and Mark
       Carmack, E., and R. Macdonald (2008), Water and Ice-Related Phenomena in the Coastal Region of the Beaufort Sea:  Some parallels betweeen Native Experience and Western Science, Arctic, 61(3), 265-280.

No Paper for  WK10

Other useful links
As the class progresses, useful internet links will be posted here.
Jody Deming's research home page
Rebecca Woodgate's research home page

Useful links for searching for papers
   UW link to ISI Web of Knowledge
- can also be accessed off campus, via UW Libraries (then follow link in top right)

Keeping up to date with Arctic annoucements (usual reports, sometimes jobs or cruise openings)
    Mailing list - ArcticInfo

Links to multidisciplinary Arctic planning and assessment papers
   NOAA Arctic Change site - source for much basic information explaining aspects of Arctic change, with many links to useful sites.  Good starting point to refresh your understanding of the basics, and get leads for areas of research.  Written for the public rather than expert scientists.
    SEARCH (Study of Environmental Arctic Change) - community wide concensus on changes observed in the Arctic written for scientists mainly, what's been happening and what might be done about it.  The Science Plan contains many references in many disciplines.  The Implementation plan is more a future "shopping list". 
     ACIA  (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment) - another community wide document (albeit challenged by a significant number of people) listing changes observed, written for scientists and policy makers.  The Marine Chapter (Chapter 9) also contains many references which may be useful starting points for a literature search. 
     NOAA State of the Arctic Report - a similar document, with less broad authorship, on the status of Arctic Change.
     International Polar Year

USCGC HEALY TOUR       -  WEEK 10 - Monday 1st June
Healy photo
(image from USCG)
The USCGC Healy is the leading US research icebreaker. She has extensive lab and deck space for science, and state of the art oceanographic equipment.  She can break 4.5 ft of ice at 3 knots, and 8 ft of ice backing and ramming.  She can carry a (usually interdisciplinary) science team of 35 scientists.  Her home port is Seattle, and we have arranged for a science tour of the vessel on Monday 1st June, following her return to Seattle after the spring field season.  The tour will take place in class hours. Transport will be provided to and from UW.  Further details will be provided by email to students of the class.  USCGC Healy
(image from USCG)

Your input is important to us.  This is the second time this interdisciplinary class has been taught.  Let us know what else you would like to see done in this class, what works well, (what works badly). 
Email Jody Deming or Rebecca Woodgate or BOTH