The Western Arctic from the CBL 2002 cruise
Monday and Wednesday 11:00-12:20
OTB (Ocean Teaching Building) 205

Spring Quarter 2012 - Ocean 506E/497 - 3 credit graduate course
THE CHANGING ARCTIC OCEAN
- an interdisciplinary perspective


Prof. Jody Deming
Walters Professor
Biological Oceanography and Astrobiology
jdeming@u.washington.edu
Tel: 206-543-0845
Room: 370, MSB (Marine Sciences Building)

Dr. Rebecca Woodgate
 Principal (Physical) Oceanographer/
  WOT Associate Professor
Polar Science Center/Physical Oceanography
woodgate@apl.washington.edu
Tel: 206-221-3268
Room: 529, Henderson Hall, Applied Physics Laboratory
Last edited 30th May 2012
COURSE CONTENT
- overview
- assignments/grading
CLASSES
- general schedule
- timetable and topics
LINKS
- lecture notes
- discussion papers
- other links
USCGC HEALY TOUR
Wednesday 25th April
FEEDBACK
COURSE CONTENT
Overview
Recent years show unprecedented change in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean.
What is currently known about the complex Arctic Ice-Ocean system and the ecosystems it supports?
What will be the impacts of continuing change within and beyond the Arctic?
 In this interdisciplinary course, we will explore the interacting physical, chemical and biological components of the Arctic System, including:
      -- riddles of Arctic Ocean circulation
      -- defining roles of the sea-ice cover
      -- likely shifts in nutrient regimes and ecosystems
      -- and recent explorations of the seafloor,
and consider the impacts of Arctic Change on global climate, native communities, and future exploitation of an ice-free summer ocean.
The aims of the course are to develop:
     -- an understanding of how the Arctic ocean system works
     -- an understanding of observed and potential changes in the Arctic and impacts of these changes in the Arctic and beyond
     -- an appreciation of why we should care about Arctic Change.
Skill development: To thrive in research (and other careers) needs skills beyond scientific data analysis, for example:
-- discerning inquiry
-- coherent communication (written and oral)
-- competence in more than one discipline.
Homework and class assignments will be aimed at developing these skills, and the art/science of productive scientific debate.

Assignments/grading
Assignments are both written and oral.  There will be no tests or final exam.

Full details of the assignments will be provided at the start of the course.
Grade: Course grade will be determined from
- 2 written homeworks (each 30% of the grade)
- 1 team-presented oral review of a published paper (20% of the grade)
- class participation, especially in the weekly paper reviews (20% of the grade).
Written Assignments: There will be two written assignments:
- the first written assignment, due end of week 5 (Sunday 29th April 2012 5pm), will be an essay assignment, including some literature review (reference list of at least 5 papers) and some thoughtful analysis.  We encourage you to create an original graphic, flow diagram, table, etc to help convey your analysis.
Link to details of the first written assignment

- the second written assignment, due end of week 10 (5pm, Friday 1st June 2012), will be to develop an experimental plan, suitable for an interdisciplinary 1-year Arctic project.
Link to details of the second written assignment.
Oral Assignments:  Each Wednesday (starting week 2, but excluding weeks when written assignments are due), there will be a ~ 20-30 min student-led discussion of a published paper.  Papers will be selected (with class input) a week in advance.  Everyone should read the assigned paper before the class.  The main points of the paper will be presented by a team of students in a ~ 10 min oral presentation, to be followed by a ~ 10-20 min class debate. Each student will help to lead one such presentation during the course, and all students will be involved in the weekly class debates.  More details will be given in class (see also handout).  Papers will be given below.
Academic Honesty: A goal of university education is for you, yourself, to learn the material.  While you may discuss homeworks with your classmates and colleagues, the two written homework assignments must be your own original work.  We expect all students to maintain the highest standards of academic conduct. UW expectations are outlined at various UW sites, including
http://www.washington.edu/uaa/gateway/advising/help/academichonesty.php

CLASSES
General schedule
Class meetings will be held  Monday and Wednesday 11:00-12:20 in OTB  205.
There will be no final exam. 
Office hours are available on request. 

Provisional Timetable
This is provisional timetable and syllabus.  Contact us if there are other topics you would like to see covered. 
WEEK
Monday 11:00
Wednesday 11:00
Deadlines/
Extra Class
1
Mar 26 - 30
No Class Course overview, Arctic Atmospheres and Oceans  
2
Apr 2 - 6
Sea-ice - the physics Sea-ice - continued, and climate change
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
3
Apr 9 - 13
Sea-ice - biology Arctic Entrances and Exits - what goes in and out?
Paper Discussion
Friday 13th April 3pm
Sea ice biology continued

- Wednesday paper talk
4
Apr 16 - 20
Going round the arctic - upper ocean circulation Upper Ocean Arctic biology
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
5
Apr 23 - 27
No Class
(Rescheduled to Friday 13th April)
Visit to USCGC Healy - Sunday 29th April
5pm first written assignment due
6
Apr 30 - May 4
Upper Ocean Arctic biology continued Getting things off the slope, tracers and biology .. over and off the shelves
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
7
May 7 - 11
Arctic Polynyas: biological refuges, hotspots and bellwethers of change  .. continued with ecosystem comparisons
Paper Discussion

- Wednesday paper talk
8
May 14 - 18
Interdisciplary case study: The Changing Bering Sea - the physical system Interdisciplinary case study: The Changing Bering Sea - the ecosystems
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
9
May 21 - 25
"Atlantification"? - the role of Atlantic waters in the Arctic The Arctic as others see it - far field effects of the Arctic and Arctic Change
Paper Discussion
- Wednesday paper talk
10
May 28 - Jun 1
Memorial Day -- no class -- The human face to the Arctic - geopolitics and larger ramifications - Friday 1st June 5pm
second written assignment due

LINKS
Lecture notes and links
As the class progresses, some notes/handouts from lectures will be posted here.

Lecture 1 (WK1 Wed):  A Quick Dash around the Arctic - Ocean, Ice, Atmos Basics - Woodgate - Handout   Lecture Slides
     International Polar Year
     Arctic Report Card 2011 from NOAA
     NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center) Arctic Sea Ice News
     IBCAO (International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean)
     Cryosphere Today
     International Arctic Buoy Program   including movies of Arctic sea-ice and buoy motion
    Papers

Lecture 2 (WK2 Mon):  The Frozen Ocean - Woodgate - Handout   Lecture Slides
     Youtube movie of sea ice ridging
     IGY 1957-1958 Ice Camp (Nobert Untersteiner)
     Sea Ice is our Highway (Inuit CircumPolar Council)
     SHEBA (Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic) Experiment
     SHEBA and Meltponds
     Youtube of daily Barrow ice images
     Cryosat 2 and ice thickness
     Zhang (UW) Ice thickness model simulations
     Papers

Lecture 3 (Wk2 Wed):  Case Study:  The Unexpected 2007 Arctic Sea Ice Retreat - Woodgate - Handout   Lecture Slides
    
Impacts of storms on fast ice (UW project)
     Modeling of Arctic sea ice volume (UW project)
     Movie of 2007 sea ice retreat by Chapman (follow this link, then scroll down to "older products"
     The Fram Expedition 1893-1896 (from the Fram Museum, Oslo)
     The Tara Expedition 2007-2008
     Arctic Sea Ice Outlook
     Physics Today Article  Kwok and Untersteiner  The thinning of Arctic Sea Ice
     Papers

Lecture 4 (Wk3 Mon): Sea ice Biology part 1 - Deming -  Lecture Slides
    
Seawifs Ocean Color

     Krembs and Deming - Sea ice: A refuge for life in polar seas
     Arctic Ocean Diversity in Sea ice
     Papers


Lecture 5 (Wk3 Wed): Getting into the Arctic Ocean - Woodgate - Handout   Lecture Slides
     UW Bering Strait - Pacific Gateway to the Arctic
     UW Chukchi Sea Circulation
     UNIS The University Centre in Svalbard

     Papers

Lecture 6 (Wk3 Fri): Sea ice Biology part 2 - Deming - Lecture Slides 2a   Lecture Slides 2b
     Papers

Lecture 7 (Wk4 Mon): Upper Ocean Circulation - Woodgate - Handout   Lecture Slides
     EWG (Environmental Working Group) Joint US-Russian Atlas of the Arctic Ocean
     Ice-Tethered profilers
     Papers

Lecture 8 (Wk4 Wed): Upper Ocean Biology - Deming - Lecture Slides
     Papers


Lecture 9 (Wk6 Mon): Upper Ocean Biology 2 - Deming - Lecture Slides
     Papers

Lecture 10 (Wk6 Wed): Getting things off the shelf - Woodgate  Handout   Lecture Slides  - Deming  Lecture Slides
     Papers


Lecture 11 (Wk7 Mon): Polynyas I  - Deming  Lecture Slides
     Papers


Lecture 12 (Wk7 Wed): Polynyas II  - Deming  Lecture Slides
     Papers

Lecture 13 (Wk8 Mon): Bering Sea System  - Woodgate  Handout   Lecture Slides
     
Ecosystem Studies of Subarctic Seas (ESSAS)
     NSIDC Sea Ice news
     NOAA site - Bering Climate
     NSF BEST (Bering Ecosystem STudy) program
     NSF-NPRB BEST-BSIERP Joint Progam
     Papers

Lecture 14 (Wk8 Wed): Bering Sea System II  - Deming  Lecture Slides
     USGS footage of walrus haul out at Point Lay (scroll down right side for different formats)
     Papers


Lecture 15 (Wk9 Mon): Acidification - Deming  Lecture Slides  and Atlantification - Woodgate  Handout   Lecture Slides
     Papers

Lecture 16 (Wk9 Wed): Human Issues - Deming  Lecture Slides
     Papers

Lecture 17 (Wk10 Wed): From Polar to Global - Woodgate  Handout   Lecture Slides
     USGS on Gas Hydrates
     The Arctic Council
     BBC Polar Bears - Spies on Ice - Seal Hunt   Seeking Polar Bear Dens   Spy Camera Demise
     Papers


Discussion papers
This section will give links to copies of the Wednesday Discussion papers.  Note these links are password protected (for copyright reasons).  The password and user name will be given in class, or you can contact us.  See HERE for notes for oral presentations.

Paper for WK2 Wednesday 4th April - Sea-ice Physics - Eric and Casey and Kira
    Holland, M.K., C.M.Bitz and B.Tremblay (2006). Future abrupt reductions in the summer Arctic sea ice.  Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L23503, doi:10.1029/2006GL02824

Paper for WK3 Wednesday 11th April - Sea-ice Biology
- Kalyn and Kim
    Juhl, A.R. and C.Krembs (2010). Effects of snow removal and algal photoacclimation on growth and export of ice algae.  Polar Biology 33:1057-1065, doi:10.1007/s00300-010-0784-1

Paper for WK4 Wednesday 18th April - Ocean Circulation
- Veronica and Matt R and Catherine
 
    Macdonald, R.S., E.C.Carmack, F.A.McLaughlin, K.K.Falkner and J.H.Swift (1999) Connections among ice, runoff and atmospheric forcing in the Beaufort Gyre, Geophys. Res. Letters, 26,15, 2223-2226.
AND Li, W.K.W., F.A.McLaughlin, C.Lovejoy and E.C.Carmack (2009) Smallest Algae Thrive as the Arctic Ocean Freshens, Science, 326, 539.

No paper for WK 5 Wednesday

Paper for WK6 Wednesday 2nd May - Upper Ocean Biology
- Matt K and Sara
     Lalande, C., S.Belanger, and L.Fortier (2009) Impact of a decreasing sea ice cover on the vertical export of particulate organic carbon in the northern Laptev Sea, Siberian Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Letters, 36, L21604, doi:10.1029/2009GL040570.

Paper for WK7 Wednesday 9th May - Polynyas
- Diane and Logan
     Bouchard C., and L.Fortier (2008) Effects of polynyas on the hatching season, early growth and survival of polar cod Boreogadus saida in the Laptev Sea, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 355, 247-256.

Paper for WK8 Wednesday 16th May - Bering Sea
- Hayley and William
    
Ray, G.C., J.McCormick-Ray, P.Berg and H.E.Epstein (2006) Pacific Walrus: Benthic bioturbator of Beringia, J.Exp.Mar.Bio.Ecol., 330, 403-419.

Paper for WK9 Wednesday 23rd May - Wild Card
- Tania and Abi and George
     Carmack, E., and R.Macdonald (2008) Water and Ice-Related Phenomena in the Coastal Region of the Beaufort Sea:  Some parallels between Native Experience and Western Science, Arctic, 61(3), 265-280.

Other useful links
As the class progresses, useful internet links will be posted here.
Jody Deming's research home page
Rebecca Woodgate's research home page

Useful links for searching for papers
   UW link to ISI Web of Knowledge
- can also be accessed off campus, via UW Libraries (then follow link in top right)

Keeping up to date with Arctic annoucements (usual reports, sometimes jobs or cruise openings)
    Mailing list - ArcticInfo

Links to multidisciplinary Arctic planning and assessment papers
 
   NOAA Arctic Change site - source for much basic information explaining aspects of Arctic change, with many links to useful sites.  Good starting point to refresh your understanding of the basics, and get leads for areas of research.  Written for the public rather than expert scientists.
    SEARCH (Study of Environmental Arctic Change) - community wide concensus on changes observed in the Arctic written for scientists mainly, what's been happening and what might be done about it.  The Science Plan contains many references in many disciplines.  The Implementation plan is more a future "shopping list". 
     ACIA  (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment) - another community wide document (albeit challenged by a significant number of people) listing changes observed, written for scientists and policy makers.  The Marine Chapter (Chapter 9) also contains many references which may be useful starting points for a literature search. 
     NOAA State of the Arctic Report - a similar document, with less broad authorship, on the status of Arctic Change.
     International Polar Year 2007-2009 - A special 2 years of international Arctic research
 

 
USCGC HEALY TOUR       -  Wednesday 25th April 2012
Healy photo
(image from USCG)
The USCGC Healy is the leading US research icebreaker. She has extensive lab and deck space for science, and state of the art oceanographic equipment.  She can break 4.5 ft of ice at 3 knots, and 8 ft of ice backing and ramming.  She can carry a (usually interdisciplinary) science team of 35 scientists.  Her home port is Seattle, and we have arranged for a science tour of the vessel on Wednesday 25th April 2012. The tour will take place in class hours. Transport will be provided to and from UW.  Further details will be provided by email to students of the class.
USCGC Healy
(image from USCG)
FEEDBACK
Your input is important to us.  This is the third time this interdisciplinary class has been taught.  Let us know what else you would like to see done in this class, what works well, (what works badly). 
Email Jody Deming or Rebecca Woodgate or BOTH