The Western Arctic from the CBL 2002 cruise
Monday and Wednesday 11:00-12:20
OTB (Ocean Teaching Building) 205
THE CHANGING ARCTIC OCEAN
- an interdisciplinary perspective
- general schedule
- timetable and topics
- lecture notes
- discussion papers
- other links
Wednesday 25th April
Recent years show unprecedented change in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean.In this interdisciplinary course, we will explore the interacting physical, chemical and biological components of the Arctic System, including:
What is currently known about the complex Arctic Ice-Ocean system and the ecosystems it supports?
What will be the impacts of continuing change within and beyond the Arctic?
-- riddles of Arctic Ocean circulation
-- defining roles of the sea-ice cover
-- likely shifts in nutrient regimes and ecosystems
-- and recent explorations of the seafloor,
and consider the impacts of Arctic Change on global climate, native communities, and future exploitation of an ice-free summer ocean.
The aims of the course are to develop:
-- an understanding of how the Arctic ocean system works
-- an understanding of observed and potential changes in the Arctic and impacts of these changes in the Arctic and beyond
-- an appreciation of why we should care about Arctic Change.
Skill development: To thrive in research (and other careers) needs skills beyond scientific data analysis, for example:
-- discerning inquiry
-- coherent communication (written and oral)
-- competence in more than one discipline.
Homework and class assignments will be aimed at developing these skills, and the art/science of productive scientific debate.
Assignments are both written and oral. There will be no tests or final exam.
Full details of the assignments will be provided at the start of the course.
Grade: Course grade will be determined from
- 2 written homeworks (each 30% of the grade)
- 1 team-presented oral review of a published paper (20% of the grade)
- class participation, especially in the weekly paper reviews (20% of the grade).
Written Assignments: There will be two written assignments:
- the first written assignment, due end of week 5 (Sunday 29th April 2012 5pm), will be an essay assignment, including some literature review (reference list of at least 5 papers) and some thoughtful analysis. We encourage you to create an original graphic, flow diagram, table, etc to help convey your analysis.
Link to details of the first written assignment
- the second written assignment, due end of week 10 (5pm, Friday 1st June 2012), will be to develop an experimental plan, suitable for an interdisciplinary 1-year Arctic project.
Link to details of the second written assignment.
Oral Assignments: Each Wednesday (starting week 2, but excluding weeks when written assignments are due), there will be a ~ 20-30 min student-led discussion of a published paper. Papers will be selected (with class input) a week in advance. Everyone should read the assigned paper before the class. The main points of the paper will be presented by a team of students in a ~ 10 min oral presentation, to be followed by a ~ 10-20 min class debate. Each student will help to lead one such presentation during the course, and all students will be involved in the weekly class debates. More details will be given in class (see also handout). Papers will be given below.
Academic Honesty: A goal of university education is for you, yourself, to learn the material. While you may discuss homeworks with your classmates and colleagues, the two written homework assignments must be your own original work. We expect all students to maintain the highest standards of academic conduct. UW expectations are outlined at various UW sites, including
Class meetings will be held Monday and Wednesday 11:00-12:20 in OTB 205.
There will be no final exam.
Office hours are available on request.
This is provisional timetable and syllabus. Contact us if there are other topics you would like to see covered.
As the class progresses, some notes/handouts from lectures will be posted here.
Lecture 1 (WK1 Wed): A Quick Dash around the Arctic - Ocean, Ice, Atmos Basics - Woodgate - Handout Lecture Slides
International Polar Year
Arctic Report Card 2011 from NOAA
NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center) Arctic Sea Ice News
IBCAO (International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean)
International Arctic Buoy Program including movies of Arctic sea-ice and buoy motion
Lecture 2 (WK2 Mon): The Frozen Ocean - Woodgate - Handout Lecture Slides
Youtube movie of sea ice ridging
IGY 1957-1958 Ice Camp (Nobert Untersteiner)
Sea Ice is our Highway (Inuit CircumPolar Council)
SHEBA (Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic) Experiment
SHEBA and Meltponds
Youtube of daily Barrow ice images
Cryosat 2 and ice thickness
Zhang (UW) Ice thickness model simulations
Lecture 3 (Wk2 Wed): Case Study: The Unexpected 2007 Arctic Sea Ice Retreat - Woodgate - Handout Lecture Slides
Impacts of storms on fast ice (UW project)
Modeling of Arctic sea ice volume (UW project)
Movie of 2007 sea ice retreat by Chapman (follow this link, then scroll down to "older products"
The Fram Expedition 1893-1896 (from the Fram Museum, Oslo)
The Tara Expedition 2007-2008
Arctic Sea Ice Outlook
Physics Today Article Kwok and Untersteiner The thinning of Arctic Sea Ice
Lecture 4 (Wk3 Mon): Sea ice Biology part 1 - Deming - Lecture Slides
Seawifs Ocean Color
Krembs and Deming - Sea ice: A refuge for life in polar seas
Arctic Ocean Diversity in Sea ice
Lecture 5 (Wk3 Wed): Getting into the Arctic Ocean - Woodgate - Handout Lecture Slides
UW Bering Strait - Pacific Gateway to the Arctic
UW Chukchi Sea Circulation
UNIS The University Centre in Svalbard
Lecture 6 (Wk3 Fri): Sea ice Biology part 2 - Deming - Lecture Slides 2a Lecture Slides 2b
Lecture 7 (Wk4 Mon): Upper Ocean Circulation - Woodgate - Handout Lecture Slides
EWG (Environmental Working Group) Joint US-Russian Atlas of the Arctic Ocean
Lecture 8 (Wk4 Wed): Upper Ocean Biology - Deming - Lecture Slides
Lecture 9 (Wk6 Mon): Upper Ocean Biology 2 - Deming - Lecture Slides
Lecture 10 (Wk6 Wed): Getting things off the shelf - Woodgate Handout Lecture Slides - Deming Lecture Slides
Lecture 11 (Wk7 Mon): Polynyas I - Deming Lecture Slides
Lecture 12 (Wk7 Wed): Polynyas II - Deming Lecture Slides
Lecture 13 (Wk8 Mon): Bering Sea System - Woodgate Handout Lecture Slides
Ecosystem Studies of Subarctic Seas (ESSAS)
NSIDC Sea Ice news
NOAA site - Bering Climate
NSF BEST (Bering Ecosystem STudy) program
NSF-NPRB BEST-BSIERP Joint Progam
Lecture 14 (Wk8 Wed): Bering Sea System II - Deming Lecture Slides
USGS footage of walrus haul out at Point Lay (scroll down right side for different formats)
Lecture 15 (Wk9 Mon): Acidification - Deming Lecture Slides and Atlantification - Woodgate Handout Lecture Slides
Lecture 16 (Wk9 Wed): Human Issues - Deming Lecture Slides
Lecture 17 (Wk10 Wed): From Polar to Global - Woodgate Handout Lecture Slides
USGS on Gas Hydrates
The Arctic Council
BBC Polar Bears - Spies on Ice - Seal Hunt Seeking Polar Bear Dens Spy Camera Demise
This section will give links to copies of the Wednesday Discussion papers. Note these links are password protected (for copyright reasons). The password and user name will be given in class, or you can contact us. See HERE for notes for oral presentations.
Paper for WK2 Wednesday 4th April - Sea-ice Physics - Eric and Casey and Kira
Holland, M.K., C.M.Bitz and B.Tremblay (2006). Future abrupt reductions in the summer Arctic sea ice. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L23503, doi:10.1029/2006GL02824
Paper for WK3 Wednesday 11th April - Sea-ice Biology - Kalyn and Kim
Juhl, A.R. and C.Krembs (2010). Effects of snow removal and algal photoacclimation on growth and export of ice algae. Polar Biology 33:1057-1065, doi:10.1007/s00300-010-0784-1
Paper for WK4 Wednesday 18th April - Ocean Circulation - Veronica and Matt R and Catherine
Macdonald, R.S., E.C.Carmack, F.A.McLaughlin, K.K.Falkner and J.H.Swift (1999) Connections among ice, runoff and atmospheric forcing in the Beaufort Gyre, Geophys. Res. Letters, 26,15, 2223-2226.
AND Li, W.K.W., F.A.McLaughlin, C.Lovejoy and E.C.Carmack (2009) Smallest Algae Thrive as the Arctic Ocean Freshens, Science, 326, 539.
No paper for WK 5 Wednesday
Paper for WK6 Wednesday 2nd May - Upper Ocean Biology - Matt K and Sara
Lalande, C., S.Belanger, and L.Fortier (2009) Impact of a decreasing sea ice cover on the vertical export of particulate organic carbon in the northern Laptev Sea, Siberian Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Letters, 36, L21604, doi:10.1029/2009GL040570.
Paper for WK7 Wednesday 9th May - Polynyas - Diane and Logan
Bouchard C., and L.Fortier (2008) Effects of polynyas on the hatching season, early growth and survival of polar cod Boreogadus saida in the Laptev Sea, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 355, 247-256.
Paper for WK8 Wednesday 16th May - Bering Sea - Hayley and William
Ray, G.C., J.McCormick-Ray, P.Berg and H.E.Epstein (2006) Pacific Walrus: Benthic bioturbator of Beringia, J.Exp.Mar.Bio.Ecol., 330, 403-419.
Paper for WK9 Wednesday 23rd May - Wild Card - Tania and Abi and George
Carmack, E., and R.Macdonald (2008) Water and Ice-Related Phenomena in the Coastal Region of the Beaufort Sea: Some parallels between Native Experience and Western Science, Arctic, 61(3), 265-280.
Other useful links
As the class progresses, useful internet links will be posted here.
Jody Deming's research home page
Rebecca Woodgate's research home page
Useful links for searching for papers
UW link to ISI Web of Knowledge - can also be accessed off campus, via UW Libraries (then follow link in top right)
Keeping up to date with Arctic annoucements (usual reports, sometimes jobs or cruise openings)
Mailing list - ArcticInfo
Links to multidisciplinary Arctic planning and assessment papers
NOAA Arctic Change site - source for much basic information explaining aspects of Arctic change, with many links to useful sites. Good starting point to refresh your understanding of the basics, and get leads for areas of research. Written for the public rather than expert scientists.
SEARCH (Study of Environmental Arctic Change) - community wide concensus on changes observed in the Arctic written for scientists mainly, what's been happening and what might be done about it. The Science Plan contains many references in many disciplines. The Implementation plan is more a future "shopping list".
ACIA (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment) - another community wide document (albeit challenged by a significant number of people) listing changes observed, written for scientists and policy makers. The Marine Chapter (Chapter 9) also contains many references which may be useful starting points for a literature search.
NOAA State of the Arctic Report - a similar document, with less broad authorship, on the status of Arctic Change.
International Polar Year 2007-2009 - A special 2 years of international Arctic research
Email Jody Deming or Rebecca Woodgate or BOTH