The Western Arctic from the CBL 2002 cruise
Monday and Wednesday 11:30-12:20, Lectures
Friday 11:30-12:20, Question and Answer Session
Mary Gates Hall, Rm 231

(Note Friday 15th May, class in More Hall 234)
Spring Quarter 2015 - Ocean 235
ARCTIC CHANGE
- an interdisciplinary science-based look at what
everyone should know about the Arctic in our world today
Ocean 235A - 2 credits.  Ocean 235B - 3 credits, a core course for UW's new Arctic Studies Minor
(To take the course at 3 credits, sign up for Ocean 235A and then email Michelle Townsend to be transferred to Ocean 235B)

Instructor: Dr. Rebecca Woodgate
Senior (Physical) Oceanographer/
APL Associate Professor WOT
Polar Science Center/School of Oceanography
woodgate@apl.washington.edu  Tel: 206-221-3268
Room: 529, Henderson Hall, Applied Physics Laboratory
Evan Firth
Teaching Assistant:  Evan Firth
Graduate Student,
Biological Oceanography,
School of Oceanography
pontus@uw.edu Tel: 206-543-5098
Room: 374, Marine Sciences Building
Last edited 3rd June 2015
COURSE CONTENT
-learning objectives
-prerequisite
-course structure and 2 vs 3 credit option
-topics
-exams, grading and rules
CLASSES
- general schedule
- preliminary timetable
- homeworks



LINKS
- lecture notes
- readings
- other links
USCGC HEALY TOUR
  Saturday 16th May 2015
(confirm participation
 by 13th April 2015)


FEEDBACK

COURSE CONTENT
Overview

     The Arctic is no longer remote.  Arctic sea-ice loss, shipping through the legendary Northwest Passage, the international land-grab for the North Pole and the Arctic sea floor, Arctic oil and gas exploration, the fate of the polar bear – these and more are all household terms.  Yet, many people’s understanding of this system and the reality of the issues is based primarily on news and media coverage.  The UW houses a remarkably wide range of world-class Arctic research – this course will access that knowledge base and provide an interdisciplinary, science-based introduction to Arctic science and topical world issues that are at the forefront of understanding how the Arctic works today, how the Arctic is changing, and what impacts those changes may have on us.

     We will investigate the Arctic ocean, ice and atmosphere system; Arctic ecosystems from the “charismatic megafauna” (polar bears and more) to the (not so charismatic?) microbes that exist inside the matrix structure of sea-ice; and how humans interact with the Arctic system.  We will study how we got to know what we know, how we advance our knowledge now, and how Arctic studies may look in the future.  We will consider how the components interact, how they are changing, what the future may hold, and what international governments are squabbling over at the minute.  We will include guest lectures by internationally recognized UW experts in a wide range of fields.

     The course is offered at the 200 level, to interest both those considering a major in science and those who seek a topical course to fulfill an out-of-option requirement.  It will provide a level of understanding suitable for those going onto a career in many non-science fields, including education, government advising, and Arctic-relevant industry.  It will also provide a science introduction that may spark enthusiasm for a major in science.
       This course is offered at the 2-credit and 3-credit level, the 3-credit version.  Students seeking an introduction to the material with a smaller commitment of time are recommended to take the 2-credit version.  The course is a core course of UW's new Arctic Studies Minor, and to qualify for the Arctic Minor, this course should be taken at the 3-credit level.


Learning Objectives

By the end of the course, you should have:

- qualitative and quantitative fact-based interdisciplinary knowledge of the key aspects of the Arctic system, including how the components of the system interact, and the current challenges and possible future impacts of Arctic Change;

- an ability to critically, qualitatively and quantitatively assess information  from various sources (e.g., media, academic research, internet), especially in issues concerning the Arctic;

… and an enthusiasm for a realm that is at the forefront of science and exploration in our world today.

 
Prerequisite

An enquiring mind. 

Course Structure and 2 versus 3 credit option

The course material is drawn from the cutting edge of current Arctic research, thus there is no text-book for the variety of material we will cover.  The main instruction medium will be:

     - two 50min class sessions a week,  Mondays, and Wednesdays, 11:30-12:20, in Mary Gates Hall, Rm 231

reinforced with:

     - a weekly TA session, Fridays 11:30-12:20, in Mary Gates Hall, Rm 231

     - readings from various UW-accessible sources,

     - instructor office hours (on request).
     - TA office hours (on request).
For the 2-credit option, you are expected to attend the lectures, do the readings, homeworks and exams, and are welcome to attend the Friday TA sessions.
For the 3-credit option, you are expected to attend the lectures and the Friday TA session, and to do extended readings, homeworks and exams.
To take the course at 3 credits, sign up for Ocean 235A and then email Michelle Townsend to be transferred to Ocean 235B.


Topics (with approximate number of lectures)

Arctic Basics (1) – the “trivia” questions – how big, how far, how deep, how cold; a basic introduction to the system.

Arctic Atmosphere (1) – Polar Night; the Polar Vortex; implications of the Coriolis force; the “Arctic Oscillation” (i.e. getting a handle on climate variability).

Arctic Ocean Circulation (3) - what goes in, what comes out, and where and why?  temperature and salinity as the accent of sea-water;  circulation of waters from the Pacific and the Atlantic, and how (well) we trace them; the unforeseen advantage of nuclear reprocessing; Arctic-wide manifestation of molecular scale processes; the mysteries of “the Deeps”; what if the ice goes away?

Arctic Ice (2) – knowing what you can stand on; ice types, formation and decay; ice impacts on atmosphere and ocean; the ice-albedo feedback; tracking ice from space; ice as somewhere to live.

Historic Exploration (1) – the Fram (old and new); the race for the North Pole; Borneo (no, that’s not a typo).

Arctic Science – how we do it (1) – ships; satellites; ice camps; moorings; autonomous monitoring; gliders under the ice; modeling; real life issues (costs, clearances, international logistics); optional weekend field trip to USCGC Healy.

Modern Exploitation (1) – oil and gas resources; Law of the Sea; the Arctic Landgrab; shipping and the Northwest Passage; the growing responsibility of the Coast Guard and Navy; international governance (guest lecture by Professor Vince Gallucci).

Life on and under the ice (1) - the charismatic Megafauna – polar bears, whales, seals and more (guest lecture by Dr Sue Moore).

Life in the Ice (1) – the (not so charismatic?) Arctic microbes and ice and water biology (guest lecture by Professor Jody Deming).

Humans of the Arctic (1) – native communities, previous and current lifestyles, languages and customs, the whaling controversy (guest lecture by Dr Nadine Fabbi).

Case study – The Blame Game (1) – what is causing recent extreme Arctic Sea-ice retreat, and why didn’t we see it coming?

Case study – Over 50% of the US fish catch (2) – the Bering Sea Ecosystem (guest lecture by Professor George Hunt).

Arctic versus Antarctic (1) – sea-ice change opposites, ice-shelves and ice sheets, the Antarctic Treaty, green icebergs

The role of the Arctic in the World (1) – CO2 uptake, Greenland and implications of its loss; the day after tomorrow?, Arctic and the flywheels of global climate.
 

Exams, Grading and Rules

Exams and Grading: Grades will be assigned on a combination of homeworks and written examinations, and will draw on material discussed in lectures or in assigned readings.  The final exam is on all the course material.  Homeworks and exams will mostly be short answer questions, some verbal, some quantitative, some graphical.  Homework deadlines and details are below.  The relative contribution of components to the final grade is:

     Homeworks  - 50%

     Written mid-term exam  - 15%

     Written final exam  - 35%

There are no make-up exams.  There is no acceptance of late homework (except in exceptional circumstances, with prearrangement with the instructor).   Student athletes and students with other legitimate conflicts need to contact the instructor at the beginning of the quarter to make arrangements for the exams. 

Academic Honest:
A goal of university education is for you, yourself, to learn the material.  While you may discuss homeworks with your classmates and colleagues, homework assignments must be your own original work and you will work independently on the midterm and the final exam.  We expect all students to maintain the highest standards of academic conduct.  The UW standards are outlined in various UW sites, including here.

Student Athletes: The Student Athlete Travel Notification form (supplied by the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics) indicating which classes will be missed must be turned in to instructors at the start of the quarter. We will discuss how you can fulfill the requirements.


Academic Accommodations
: To request academic accommodations because of a disability, please contact the Disability Resources for Students (DRS), uwdrs@u.washington.edu,
011 Mary Gates, 206-543-8924. Please present a letter at the start of the quarter to the instructor so we can provide appropriate accommodations.


CLASSES
General schedule
Lectures will be held  Monday and Wednesday 11:30-12:20 in Mary Gates Hall, Rm 231. 
A weekly TA-led question and answer session will be held Friday 11:30-12:20, at the same location.
Office hours are available with the instructor and with the TA
by appointment - email us!
The tour (highly recommended, but optional) of the USCGC Healy, ported at the USCG base in downtown Seattle (~ 1-2 hr) is planned for Saturday 16th May 2015. More details will be given in class.


Provisional Timetable

WEEK
Monday 11:30
Wednesday 11:30
Friday 11:30 TA session
1
Mar 30 - Apr 3
Welcome to the Arctic
HW1 set
Arctic Atmospheres  - the top of the world
Review (especially Atmospheres)
2
Apr 6 - 10
Arctic Sea-ice I
HW1 due; HW2 set
Arctic Sea-ice II  Review (especially Sea-ice)
3
Apr 13 - 17
Arctic Ocean I
HW2 due; HW3 set
Confirm participation in the Healy Tour
Arctic Ocean II
Review (especially Oceans)
4
Apr 20 - 24
Arctic Ocean III
HW3 due;  no HW this week, instead revise for Midterm
Historic and modern exploration - from voyages into the unknown to tourist camps
Review (especially biology) and mid-term revision
5
Apr 27 - May 1
Midterm Exam
HW4 set
Life IN Ice
- Guest lecture Prof Jody Deming

Mid-term debrief
6
May 4 - 8
Case Study: Bering Sea - home of 50% of the US fish catch
HW4 due; HW5 set
Ecosystems of the Bering Sea
- Guest lecture Prof George Hunt

Review (especially Bering Sea)
7
May 11 - 15
 Doing Arctic Science - methods of modern Arctic research
HW5 due; HW6 set
Life ON/UNDER Ice - the charistmatic Megafauna
- Guest lecture Dr Sue Moore
Magazine review and TA research "Radioactive food and happily frozen bacteria" ** CLASS IN MOR 234 on 15th May **
** USCGC Healy tour  Saturday 16th May
8
May 18 - 22
Case Study: Unexpected Arctic sea-ice retreats - causes and implications
HW6 due; HW7 set
The Role of Geopolitics in Governing of the Arctic: the interface of Arctic policy and science
- Guest lecture Prof Vince Gallucci

HW8 set
More on Arctic Council, UNCLOS, Shipping, Oil
9
May 25 - 29
    Memorial Day - no class Inuit Internationalism in the Arctic
- Guest lecture Dr Nadine Fabbi

HW7 due
Review
10
Jun 1 - 5

 The Arctic's impact on the world
Arctic versus Antarctic
Final cramming on anything you like!
HW8 due
Exam Week
Final Exam - Wednesday 10th June 2015  2:30-4:20pm MGH 231


Homework Timetable and details
Written homeworks make up 50% of the grade for this class.  Details of homeworks will be available via links in the table below. There is no acceptance of late homework (except in exceptional circumstances, with prearrangement with the instructor). While you may discuss homeworks with your classmates and colleagues, homework assignments must be your own original effort.  All homeworks are worth equal marks.  Only your 7 best homework marks will count towards your final homework grade.
In general, marked homeworks will be available for pickup at the Friday TA session after they are due, although there may be slight delays the cases of the longer written homeworks.  Queries about returned homeworks should be made within a week of the available-for-pickup date.

Homework schedule  - assignments are available via links below and on the Catalyst site (here)Homework solutions will also be posted on the catalyst site.
HW
Set
Due
Type of HW
Link
1
Mon 30th March (Wk1)
Wk2 Mon 6th April 11:30am
Assignment Short answer questions.
HW1
2
Mon 6th April (Wk2)
Wk3 Mon 13th April 11:30am
DIY Sea-ice experimental write-up.
(Either submit a paper copy in class, or upload a pdf file to the class Canvas site)
HW2
3
Mon 13th April (Wk3)
Wk4 Mon 20th April 11:30am
Short answer questions.
HW3

No HW set Wk4, instead revise for Mid Term
4
Mon 27th April (Wk5)
Wk 6 Mon 4th May 11:30am
Short answer questions
HW4
5
Mon 4th May (Wk6)
Wk 7 Mon 11th May 11:30am
Topical Magazine Article
(upload file to the class Canvas site - .doc./ .docx strongly preferred)
HW5
6
Mon 11th May (Wk7)
Wk 8 Mon 18th May 11:30am
USCGC Healy Questionnaire
HW6
7
Mon 18th May (Wk8)
Wk 9 Wed 27th May 11:30am
Short answer questions HW7
8
Wed 20th May (Wk8)
Wk 10 Fri 5th June 11:30am
Topical Magazine Article
(upload file to the class Canvas site - .doc./ .docx strongly preferred)
HW8


LINKS
Lecture notes, readings and links
As the class progresses, notes/handouts from lectures and papers for readings will be posted here (Class Catalyst page).  (Class membership required for access to the notes and handouts.)
====================================================
Wk1 - Monday 30th March 2015.  Lecture 1: Welcome to the Arctic    Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page

 
        IBCAO - International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean   and paper about it (Jakobsson et al, 2012)
         All you ever wanted to know about Arctic depths -  Hypsometry and Volume of the Arctic Ocean and Constituent Seas, Jakobsson 2002
 
        UIUC Cryosphere Today, images and movies from Chapman et al 
              (scroll down to "older products" to get the movie of the 2007 Sea-ice retreat)
         International Arctic Buoy Program  ... and the movie of the buoy motion

====================================================
Wk1 - Wednesday 1st April 2015.   Lecture 2: The Atmosphere of the Arctic   Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page    
         Animation of the Polar Vortex 
         Overview paper on Ozone Holes, Solomon 1999 (research level)
         YouTube movie of the Coriolis Force
         Reading - Arctic Oscillation from NOAA, Arctic - easy, short, with other interesting links
         Optional readings - On Arctic and Antarctic Oscillations - Wallace, 2000 - pretty comprehensive, reasonably readable, but a little old
                                      - Arctic Atmosphere in the Arctic Report Card 2014 - pretty much the latest and greatest, but assumes you know a lot already
         3-credit readings:
         - Kim et al, 2014, Nature, Weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex by Arctic sea-ice loss
         - Manney et al, 2011, Nature, Unprecedented Arctic Ozone Loss in 2011


====================================================

Wk2 - Monday 6th April 2015.   Lecture 3: The Frozen Ocean - Part 1  Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page  
          YouTube movie of ice ridging (with sounds)
          NSIDC Sea-Ice Index - Charts of ice extent, changes with time, etc.
          Polar Bear hunting seal movie - BBC Spies on Ice
          Life in Sea-ice (see also week 5 lecture)
          Life under Sea-ice
          Reading  - NSIDC introduction to sea ice, especially sections Formation, Salinity and Brine, and Multiyear Ice
                         - Sea-ice is our Highway - importance of sea-ice to the Inuit Way of life - overview by Chester Reimer, Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada
          Optional readings
          - Eicken 2003, Review Article on micro to macro scale properties of sea-ice
          - Sea-ice is our Highway - An Inuit perspective on Transportation in the Arctic - Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada
          3-credit readings:
 
         - Weissenberger et al, 1992, Limn & Ocean, Sea ice: A cast technique to examine and analyze brine pockets and channel structure
          - Maslanik et al, 2007, Geophys. Res. Lett., A younger thinner Arctic ice cover:  Increased potential for rapid, extensive sea-ice loss

====================================================
Wk2 - Wednesday 8th April 2015. Lecture 4:  The Frozen Ocean - Part 2
 
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          Arctic Oases: The role of polynyas - from the Arctic Council
 
         UW Polar Science webpage on fastice, including UAF movie of fastice breakup in Barrow
          Forecasting the Barrow Ice breakup, Eicken, UAF
          Compiled photos of the Barrow webcam, showing the daily variation in sea ice conditions for one year: 2007, 2008
          More on Shishmaref, Alaska,  - the village,
   
       Sassats - the photos, the (a?) newstory (Canadian Geographic,1999), the movie (BBC)
          Reading: 
Ice Albedo (NSIDC)
                          Sea ice Motion (NSIDC)
                          Polynyas (NSIDC)
          Optional reading: 
Age of Sea-ice movies (and explanation) from Ignatius Rigor, UW4.
 
====================================================
Wk3 - Monday 13th April 2015.  Lecture 5:  Getting into the Arctic Ocean
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          Compiled photos of the Barrow webcam, showing the daily variation in sea ice conditions for one year: 2007, 2008
          Arctic Great Rivers Observatory
          NOAA-Arctic change - summary of changes in river discharge
          River discharge data from   ArcticRIMS
          NSIDC - Factors affecting Arctic weather and climate (including, briefly, precipitation)     
          Bering Strait research at the UW
          Bering Strait School District video on Little Diomede - footage from the helicopter ride to LD, plus around the village
          Webcams from Little Diomede and Shishmaref (You can move the Little Diomede one apparently)
          Reading:  Arctic Ocean Circulation: Going around at the top of the world, Woodgate, 2013, Nature Education Knowledge
          Optional Readings: 
          - The 2007 Bering Strait Oceanic heat Flux and ..., Woodgate et al., 2010, Geophys. Res. Let.
          - Interdisciplinary Synthesis of Bering Strait moorings to 2014, Woodgate, et al, submitted.
          - The Large-scale freshwater cycle of the Arctic, Serreze et al, 2006, JGR
          3-credit Reading:
          - parts of  A synthesis of Exchanges through the main Oceanic Gateways to the Arctic, Beszcznska-Moeller et al, 2011, Oceanography 

====================================================
Wk3 - Wednesday 15th April 2015.  Lecture 6: Arctic Ocean 2 
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          Fram Strait inputs
          UNIS - The University Center in Svalbard
          Local and Traditional Knowledge from Kawerak, Inc., Nome
          Indigneous Knowledge and Use of Bering Strait Region Ocean Currents, J.Raymond-Yakoubian et al, 2014 - report, book

          Photo Gallery of life on the North Pole Drifting Station (NSIDC archives)
          
Reading:  (at least Abstract and Figures) of Circulation of Pacific Summer Water in the Arctic, Steele et al., 2004, J. Geophys.Res.
          Optional reading:  Barents Sea Ecosystems and Climate Change (Loeng and Drinkwater, 2007)

====================================================

          ** Arctic relevant lecture in UW Global Mondays ** Monday 20th April 12:30-1:20pm:
           
UW Canada Fulbright Chair and Executive Director of The Arctic Eider Society, Joel Heath, presents:
"Addressing Environmental Justice Issues in the Canadian Arctic: Stewardship, Community-Driven Research and Assessing Cumulative Impacts of Hydroelectric Mega-Projects on Sea Ice Ecosystems" , Room 117, UW School of Law. 
            (see also "People of a Feather")
====================================================

====================================================
Wk4 - Monday 20th April 2015.  Lecture 7: Atlantic Water Circulation 
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          USCG review of Major Icebreakers (international)
          AOS94 - US-Canadian Arctic Ocean Crossing - First Major Scientific Crossing of the Arctic Ocean
          Reading: 
Arctic Ocean Circulation: Going around at the top of the world, Woodgate, 2013, Nature Education Knowledge
                         
Nature Article on Arctic Warming (Quadfasel et al, 1991)
          Optional reading:  Fate of 2000s Arctic warm water pulse (Polyakov et al, 2011, BAMS)
          Other papers referred to in the lecture as on the Catalyst site for ease of access. 

====================================================
Wk4 - Wednesday 22nd April 2015.  Lecture 8: Ocean Processes and Arctic Exploration 
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          Fram Museum, Oslo
          St Roch, at the Maritime Museum, Vancouver
          NPEO - North Pole Environmental Observatory
          North Pole Webcam
          Tara Arctic Drift 2006-2008
 
         Readings:  1893-1896 Fram Expedition (from the Fram Museum, Oslo)
                            1903-1906 Gjoa Expedition through the Northwest Passage (from the Fram Museum, Oslo)
          Optional readings: Biography of Nansen (from the Fram Museum, Oslo)
          And some books:
  
        Whales, Ice and Men, by Bockstoce, 1986 - about whaling in the western Arctic
 
         Farthest North, by Nansen and Sverdrup, 1897 - about the 1893-1896 Fram Expedition
          The Ice Master, The Doomed 1913 Voyage of the Karluk, by Niven, 2001
 
          Other papers referred to in the lecture as on the Catalyst site for ease of access. 

====================================================
Wk5 - Wednesday 29th April 2015.  Lecture 9: Life IN Ice (Guest Lecture: Jody Deming) 
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          SeaWIFS ocean color satellite (viewing life in the oceans from space)
          Coccolithophorid Bloom in the Barents Sea (one of many examples)
          One of many references on photosynthesis
          Sizes of particles in the ocean - Sheldon et al, 1972
          Marine Plankton food chains - Fenchel, 1988
          Reading: Organisms in Arctic Sea Ice - Krembs and Deming, 2011
          Optional reading: Jody Deming's website

====================================================
Wk6 - Monday 4th May 2015.  Lecture 10: Bering Sea I 
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          ESSAS - Ecosystem Studies of Sub-Arctic Seas
          BSIERP-BEST Project
          North Pacific Research Board
          Simulations of the Bering Sea - BESTMAS by Jinlun Zhang, UW
          NOAA Bering Climate website (with essays on many aspects of the Bering Sea)
          NOAA Bering Sea Overview
          The PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation)
          Reading:  Why is the Bering Sea Important - Vera Alexander, NOAA Bering Climate site
          Optional Reading:  Regime Shift in the Bering Sea - Grebmeier et al, 2006, Science
                          Other essays at the NOAA Bering Climate website
                           Physical Forcing of the Bering Sea Shelf - Stabeno et al, 2005, The Sea

====================================================
Wk6 - Wednesday 6th May 2015.  Lecture 11: Pollock and the Bering Sea (Guest Lecture: George Hunt)
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
         NOAA Pollock Fishwatch
         Reading: 
  2010 UAF story on warm/cold small/large zooplankton in the Bering Sea
         Optional Reading: First overview of the Oscillating Control Hypothesis - Hunt and Stabeno, 2002
                                       Revised Oscillating Control Hypothesis - Hunt et al, 2011

====================================================
Wk7 - Monday 11th May 2015.  Lecture 12: Doing Arctic Science
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
 
         USCG Icebreaker Science Operations
          The German research Icebreaker FS Polarstern
          Movie of mooring deployment and recovery of Bering Strait moorings on the Canadian vessel Laurier, 2006 (film, Lee Cooper)
          North Pole Mooring   and results thereof (Aagaard et al, 2011)
          Arctic Coring Expedition 2004 - Preliminary Science Report    Science Papers  Mission Website from Operator
          Ice Tethered Platforms      
          Combining Indigenous Knowledge with Observational Oceanography - Carmack and Macdonald, 2008
          New York Times collation of expert opinions on future of the Polar Bear
          National Academies Press, 2006, Toward an Integrated Arctic Observing Network
          A high tech Arctic Observing Network Vision
          The Global ARGO program - ocean drifters sampling the world ocean
          Reading: parts of 
Combining Indigenous Knowledge with Observational Oceanography - Carmack and Macdonald, 2008
 

====================================================
Wk7 - Wednesday 13th May 2015.  Lecture 13: Life on and under the Ice - the Megafauna (Guest Lecture: Sue Moore)
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          USGS Walrus Tagging
          USGS footage of walrus haul out at Point Lay (scroll down right side for different formats including youtube)
          DOSITS (Discovery of Sound in the Sea) - recordings of marine mammal calls
          Reading: Marine Mammals as Ecosystem Sentinels, Moore, 2008  (the ENP (East North Pacific) Gray Whale Story)
          Optional Reading: Arctic Marine Mammals and Climate Change: Impacts and Resilience, Moore and Huntington, 2008
          3-credit reading (abstract recommended for 2-credit also): Ray et al, 2006, Pacific walrus: Benthic bioturbator of Beringia

====================================================
Wk8 - Monday 18th May 2015.  Lecture 14: Unexpected Arctic Sea Ice Retreat
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          UIUC Cryosphere Today, images and movies from Chapman et al 
              (scroll down to "older products" to get the movie of the 2007 Sea-ice retreat)
          NSIDC Sea-Ice Index - Charts of ice extent, changes with time, etc.
          Charts and Change in Fast Ice
          PIOMAS Arctic Sea Ice Volume Predictions from UW model
          Arctic sea-ice outlook (predictions of summer sea-ice extent)
          Sea Ice Prediction Network
          Arctic sea-ice today (graphs of how ice NOW compares to previous years)
          Reading:  The thinning of Arctic Sea-ice, Kwok and Untersteiner - another perspective on causes of Arctic sea-ice loss
          Optional Reading: NOAA Arctic Report Card

 

====================================================
Wk8 - Wednesday 20th May 2015.  Lecture 15: Controversial, Legal Issues (Guest Lecture: Vince Gallucci)
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
Wk 8 - Friday 20th May 2015.  Lecture 15 extra: More on the Arctic council, UNCLOS, Shipping and Oil
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          The Arctic Council ...(and links therein), see also "Model Arctic Council"
          Russian Federation plants flag on the Lomonosov Ridge - National Geographic News    New York Times
          United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
          Schematic of UNCLOS zones from
UK UNCLOS at National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
          Dividing up the Arctic -
New York Times Story   National Geographic News  
         
Arctic Shipping Routes - New York Times (2005) 
          Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment  (and other interest
ing documents)... from a working group of the Arctic Council (PAME)
          Modeling Arctic Shipping Routes (Smith and Stephenson 2013)
          Northwest Passage Statistics (from Canadian Govt)
          Northern Sea Route:  Statistics     Northern Sea Route Information Office
          Shipping through the Bering Strait  Huntington et al, 2015
          Oil and Gas in the Arctic
                - USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (2008)
                - National Academies 2014 report "Responding to Oil Spills in the US Arctic Marine Environment" (free on-line)
                - 2012 report from ArcticResponseTechnology on "Spill Response in the Arctic offshore"
          Sea-ice tracking in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas in winter 2011-2012 - Babb et al, 2013
          Reading:   New York Times 2005 (so a bit dated but none the less) .. "As Polar Ice Turns to Water, Dreams of Treasure Abound"
          3-credit reading:
Vessel, risks, and Rules:  Planning for safe shipping in Bering Strait, Huntington et al, 2015

====================================================
Wk9 - Wednesday 20th May 2015.  Lecture 16: Inuit Internationalism in the Arctic (Guest Lecture: Nadine Fabbi)
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          Susan Aglukark - O Siem  (YouTube)
          Arctic Council
          Arctic Indigenous Peoples - Map of Arctic Council Membership
          Inuit Circumpolar Council 
          Inuit Tapirit Kanatami (association of Canadian Inuit)
          Government of Nunavut - introduction to Nunavut
          Silent Film Nanook of the North - a year in the life of an Inuit Native
          Reading:  Introduction to Arctic Indigenous Peoples - pages 1-6 at www.grida.no/publications/vg/arctic
          Optional Reading: The Jackson School Task Force on Arctic Governance

====================================================

Wk10 - Monday 1st June 2015.  Lecture 17: From Polar to Global - Arctic Impacts
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          Introduction to the Meridional Overturning Circulation, Schmittner et al., 2007
          Bitz on Polar Amplification at Realclimate.org
          Global Carbon Dioxide Levels (epa.gov)
          Methane Gas Hydrates - USGS
          IPCC report on Sea level rise, Frequently asked questions and  IPCC summary slides
          Optional Reading:  Overview of the Arctic Carbon Budget, McGuire et al, 2010
                    Ocean Acidification at High Latitudes: the bellwether, Fabry et al, 2010, TOS
                                                                                                                                   
==================================================== Wk8 - Wednesday 20th May 2015.  Lecture 16: Inuit Internationalism in the Arctic (Guest Lecture: Nadine Fabbi) Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page ==================================================== Wk8 - Wednesday 20th May 2015.  Lecture 16: Inuit Internationalism in the Arctic (Guest Lecture: Nadine Fabbi) Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page ==================================================== Wk8 - Wednesday 20th May 2015.  Lecture 16: Inuit Internationalism in the Arctic (Guest Lecture: Nadine Fabbi) Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
====================================================
Wk10 - Wednesday 3rd June 2015.  Lecture 18: Arctic versus Antarctic
Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page
          The Southern Annular Mode (SAM)
           Animation of Antarctic Sea Ice Extent  - NSIDC on YouTube    - NSIDC Sea ice Animation Tool
           Discussion of Antarctic sea ice change (Real Climate)
           Collapse of the Larsen-B Ice Shelf (NASA)
           Antarctic Ice Sheet Losses (NSIDC)
           Antarctic Food Web
           CIA statistics for Antarctica, including map of Antarctic Bases and  National Claims
           The Antarctic Treaty  - Overview  - Secretariat
           Shackleton and the Endurance 1914 - 1917 - Overviewphotos  - Full Account
           Antarctic Images
           Reading:  Introduction to Antarctic from NASA
                           New York Times Article on Antarctic Warming
           Optional Reading:  Pritchard et al, 2009, Nature, on Antarctic Ice Sheet thinning
                           Full Account of Shackleton's Endurance Expedition
                                                                                                                                   
==================================================== Wk8 - Wednesday 20th May 2015.  Lecture 16: Inuit Internationalism in the Arctic (Guest Lecture: Nadine Fabbi) Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page ==================================================== Wk8 - Wednesday 20th May 2015.  Lecture 16: Inuit Internationalism in the Arctic (Guest Lecture: Nadine Fabbi) Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page ==================================================== Wk8 - Wednesday 20th May 2015.  Lecture 16: Inuit Internationalism in the Arctic (Guest Lecture: Nadine Fabbi) Lecture notes, handouts, papers via class Catalyst page ====================================================

Other useful links:
         UIUC Cryosphere Today, images and movies from Chapman et al
         Sea Ice Prediction (set of models predicting summer sea ice extent)
         NOAA Arctic Change site - source for much basic information explaining aspects of Arctic change, with many links to useful sites. Good starting point to refresh your understanding of the basics, and get leads for areas of research.  Written for the public rather than expert scientists.
         NSIDC Education site - more general information about the Arctic 

Other useful links
Meet the instructor
  Associate Professor Rebecca Woodgate - UW physical oceanographer, specialising in the Arctic
 

How to find reliable information
  One pillar of the world of science is the peer-reviewed literature.  Here, after review by other experts in the field, scientists publish their findings in detail, so others can test their results.  Those at UW can access this resource though the libraries and on-line search engines available here . (See search engines in box on right - Web of Science works quite well for the Arctic.)  You can set these links up to work from outside UW using the UW Libraries off-campus Proxy service .

Keeping up to date with the Arctic
    Google Alerts - allows you to get weekly, daily or as-it-happens notification of articles posted on the internet. Just add search terms.
    Arctic Mailing list - ArcticInfo - an NSF-sponsored moderated mailing list for items of interest to Arctic researchers (usually reports or meetings, but sometimes jobs or cruise openings)



USCGC HEALY TOUR       -  Saturday 16th May 2015
Healy photo
(image from USCG)
The USCGC Healy is the leading US research icebreaker. She has extensive lab and deck space for science, and state of the art oceanographic equipment.  She can break 4.5 ft of ice at 3 knots, and 8 ft of ice backing and ramming.  She can carry a (usually interdisciplinary) science team of 35 scientists.  Her home port is Seattle, and we have organized a science tour of the vessel (~ 1-2hrs) specially for this class on Saturday 16th May 2015.  More details will be given in class.

USCGC Healy
(image from USCG)

FEEDBACK
Your input is important.  This is the first time this interdisciplinary class has been taught at this level.  Let us know what else you would like to see done in this class, what works well, (and what works badly). 

Email Rebecca Woodgate.   If you prefer to send anonymous feedback, use THIS link.