The Western Arctic from the CBL 2002 cruise
Monday and Wednesday 11:00-12:20
OTB (Ocean Teaching Building) 205
THE CHANGING ARCTIC OCEAN
- an interdisciplinary perspective
A "Northstar" course for UW's new Arctic Studies Minor
| COURSE CONTENT
- course structure
- general schedule
- provisional timetable
Class CATALYST site
Class CANVAS HW1 Submission Link
Class CANVAS HW2 Submission Link
- lecture notes
- discussion papers
- other links
| USCGC HEALY TOUR
Wednesday 25th May 2016
(Wednesday Week 9)
Recent years show unprecedented change in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean.In this interdisciplinary course, we will explore the interacting physical, chemical and biological components of the Arctic System, including:
What is currently known about the complex Arctic Ice-Ocean system and the ecosystems it supports?
What will be the impacts of continuing change within and beyond the Arctic?
-- riddles of Arctic Ocean circulation
-- defining roles of the sea-ice cover
-- likely shifts in nutrient regimes and ecosystems
-- and recent explorations of the seafloor,
and consider the impacts of Arctic Change on global climate, native communities, and future exploitation of an ice-free summer ocean.
The aims of the course are to develop:
-- an understanding of how the Arctic ocean system works
-- an understanding of observed and potential changes in the Arctic and impacts of these changes in the Arctic and beyond
-- an appreciation of why we should care about Arctic Change.
Skill development: To thrive in research (and other careers) needs skills beyond scientific data analysis, for example:
-- discerning inquiry
-- coherent communication (written and oral)
-- competence in more than one discipline.
Homework and class assignments will be aimed at developing these skills, and the art/science of productive scientific debate.
Learning Objectives: By the end of the course, you should have:
- qualitative and quantitative fact-based knowledge of the key aspects of the Arctic system, including how the components of the system interact, and the current challenges and possible future impacts of Arctic Change;
- an ability to critically, qualitatively and quantitatively assess information from science sources (especially academic research papers), and to combine information from different disciplines;
- skills in written and oral communication of this knowledge at a senior/graduate level, including bringing together ideas from various disciplines;
and an enthusiasm for a realm that lies at the forefront of science and exploration in our world today.
The class is targeted at 400-level Senior undergraduate majors and non-majors (Ocean 482), and 500-level Graduate majors and non-majors (Ocean 508). The best prepared students will have taken:
a) Ocean 200 (Introduction to Oceanography) or Ocean 210 (Ocean Circulation); and
b) Biol 180 (Introduction to Biology), Biol 200 or Biol 220.
If you are interested in the course but do not have these prerequisites, email us, as we are happy to consider, on a case-by-case basis, students who are prepared to do whatever extra work is needed to understand the material.
Graduate/Undergraduate course differences
This course is offered simultaneously at the graduate and senior undergraduate level. Graduate students are expected to perform at a higher level than undergraduates.
Throughout the lectures, we will distinguish between "core content" (the main concepts of the class) and "advanced content" (more detailed material, delving into complex interdisciplinary interactions of the system). Undergraduates are expected to master the "core content" of the class and be aware of the "advanced content". Graduate students are expected to master both the "core" and "advanced" material in the class.
This distinction will also be reflected in readings for the class - undergraduates are expected to read and comprehend given key papers in the subject area (one per week), whereas graduate students are expected to read the key papers and additional supporting material, (typically two extra papers per week).
Graduates and undergraduates will be set different assignments, with differing goals and expected levels of attainment and grading (as outlined in assignments below).
The course material is drawn from the cutting edge of current Arctic research. Thus there is no textbook for the variety of material we will cover. The main instruction medium will be:
- two lectures a week, reinforced with:
- readings from various UW-accessible sources,
- instructor office hours, arranged by request.
Assignments are both written and oral. There will be no midterm or final exam.
Full details of the assignments will be provided during the course.
Grade: Course grade will be determined from
- 2 written homeworks (each 30% of the grade)
- 1 team-presented oral review of a published paper (20% of the grade)
- class participation, especially in the weekly paper reviews (20% of the grade).
Tasks and grading will take into account the level (undergraduate/graduate) of the student.
Written Assignments: There will be two written assignments, to be submitted via Canvas. HW1 Canvas Submission link. HW2 Canvas Submission link.
The first written assignment, due end of week 5 (Friday 29th April 2016, 5pm), will be a five-page essay that includes some literature review (a reference list of at least six peer-reviewed journal articles) and some thoughtful analysis on an interdisciplinary question given in class. Students are encouraged to create an original graphic, flow diagram, calculation or table to help convey key points of the analysis. Students are further expected to develop a testable hypothesis from their synthesis of the literature read on the subject.
The second written assignment, due end of week 10 (Friday 3rd June 2016, 5pm), will be to develop a short research proposal with an experimental plan, suitable for an interdisciplinary 2-year project in the Arctic Ocean. It should include references to at least six journal articles. Graduates are expected to develop testable hypotheses, with realistic logistics, as part of the research plan.
The first written assignment, due end of week 5 (Friday 29th April 2016, 5pm), will be a four-page essay that includes some literature review (a reference list of at least three peer-reviewed journal articles) and some thoughtful analysis on an interdisciplinary question given in class. Students are encouraged to create an original graphic, flow diagram, calculation or table to help convey key points of the analysis. Instructions for first written assignment are here. To submit your assignment, go here.
The second written assignment, due end of week 10 (Friday 3rd June 2016, 5pm), will be a four-page essay that includes some literature review (a reference list of at least three peer-reviewed journal articles) and some thoughtful analysis on an interdisciplinary question given in class. Students are encouraged to create an original graphic, flow diagram, calculation or table to help convey key points of the analysis. Instructions for second written assignment are here. To submit your assignment, go here.
Each Wednesday, there will be a ~ 30 min student-led discussion of a published paper. Papers will be selected a week in advance. Everyone should read the assigned paper before the class. The main points of the paper will be presented by a team of students in a ~ 15 min oral presentation, to be followed by a ~ 15 min class debate. Each student will help to lead one such presentation during the course, and all students will be involved in the weekly class debates, including submission of a question on the paper before the discussion via the class catalyst site. More details will be given in class. A summary of instruction is here. Papers will be given below.
Undergraduates are expected to cover the material of the paper, and hypothesize on future directions or relevance for the work, drawing on material covered in class lectures.
Graduates are expected to cover the material of the paper, and hypothesize on future directions or relevance for the work, drawing not only on material covered in class lectures, but also on material in the assigned graduate readings or journal papers of their own finding.
Late homework is not accepted (except in exceptional circumstances, and by prearrangement with the instructors). Student athletes and students with other legitimate schedule conflicts need to contact the instructors at the beginning of the quarter to make arrangements for alternative due dates.
Academic Honesty: A goal of university education is for you, yourself, to learn the material. We expect all students to maintain the highest standards of academic conduct. UW expectations are outlined at various UW sites, including here.
While you may discuss homeworks with your classmates and colleagues, the two written homework assignments must be your own original work.
Class meetings will be held Monday and Wednesday 11:00-12:20 in OTB 205.
There will be no midterm or final exam.
Office hours are available on request.
This is provisional timetable and syllabus. Contact us if there are other topics you would like to see covered.
As the class progresses, class readings and some notes/handouts from lectures will be posted on the class catalyst site (requires class enrollment).
Lecture 1 (Week 1 Mon): A Quick Dash around the Arctic - Ocean, Ice, Atmos Basics - Woodgate
Arctic Report Card from NOAA - Surface Air Temperature (Overland et al., 2015); Warmest Jan/Feb in the Arctic (Wang 2016)
NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center) Arctic Sea Ice News
IBCAO (International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean)
International Arctic Buoy Program including movies of Arctic sea-ice and buoy motion
NASA Ozone Watch
Lecture 2 (Week 1 Wed): The Frozen Ocean - Woodgate
Youtube movie of sea ice ridging
IGY 1957-1958 Ice Camp (Nobert Untersteiner)
Sea Ice is our Highway (Inuit CircumPolar Council)
Youtube of daily Barrow ice images
Cryosat 2 and ice thickness
Zhang (UW) Ice thickness model simulations
Lecture 3 and 4 (Week 2 Mon and Wed): Sea Ice Biology - Deming
Dynamic Ice cover over the Beaufort Sea Feb-Mar 2013
Lecture 5 (Week 3 Mon): Getting into the Arctic Ocean - Woodgate
UW Bering Strait - Pacific Gateway to the Arctic
UW Chukchi Sea Circulation
UNIS The University Centre in Svalbard
Lecture 6 (Week 3 Wed): Upper Arctic Ocean Circulation - Woodgate
Going Around at the Top of the World, 2013, Nature Education, Woodgate
EWG (Environmental Working Group) Arctic Atlas
Life on a Russian North Pole Drift Station (Search under Location: Arctic Ocean, or Project: Arctic Climatology and Meteorology)
Lecture 7 (Week 4 Mon): Stirring things up in the Arctic - getting off shelves and mixing - Woodgate
NSIDC on polynyas
Sassats - Canadian Geographic Article,1999; University of Saskatchewan (Malcolm Ramsey) Photos; BBC Blue Planet - Belugas and Polar Bears.
Chukchi Borderland Cruise CBL2002
Internal Waves in the Western Arctic Ocean, PhD Thesis, Hayley Dosser, UW, 2015
Arctic Eddies website by Plueddemann, WHOI
Lecture 8 (Week 4 Wed): Upper Arctic Ocean Biology - Deming
Lecture 9 (Week 5 Mon): Upper Arctic Ocean Biology - Deming
Lecture 10 (Week 5 Wed): Astounding Arctic Sea Ice Loss - Woodgate
Impacts of storms on fast ice (UW project)
Modeling of Arctic sea ice volume (UW project)
Movie of 2007 sea ice retreat by Chapman (follow this link, then scroll down to "older products")
The Fram Expedition 1893-1896 (from the Fram Museum, Oslo)
The Tara Expedition 2007-2008
Arctic Sea Ice Outlook
Physics Today Article Kwok and Untersteiner The thinning of Arctic Sea Ice (or on class catalyst site)
Lecture 11 (Week 6 Mon): Arctic Ocean Higher Trophic Biology I - Deming
Lecture 12 (Week 6 Wed): Arctic Ocean Higher Trophic Biology II - Deming
Lecture 13 (Week 7 Mon): Bering Sea - home to 50% of the US fish catch - Woodgate
Ecosystem Studies of Subarctic Seas (ESSAS)
NOAA site on Bering Climate
BEST-BSIERP Bering Sea Project from NPRB
Lecture 14 (Week 7 Wed): Arctic Ocean Acidification - Deming
Lecture 15 (Week 8 Mon): Atlantic and Deep Waters of the Arctic - Woodgate
Going Around at the Top of the World, 2013, Nature Education, Woodgate
Marine Fishes of the Arctic (see also papers on the catalyst site)
Lecture 16 (Week 8 Wed): From Polar to Global - Woodgate
2013 IPCC report on Sea level - Church et al
2007 IPCC report on Methane
Lecture 17 (Week 9 Mon): The Arctic Bottom - Deming
Week 9 Wed: Trip to the USCG Healy
USCGC Healy Science Site - ICEFLOE
Videos by Dave Forcucci of "Arctic Gyres" Science Mission - Short version (3min), Long version (10min)
Video from Healy Science of "un-dry-docking" the Healy
Week 10 Mon: Memorial Day, no class
Lecture 18 (Week 10 Wed): The Human Face to the Arctic - Deming
The Arctic Council
People of a Feather
BBC Polar Bear Spies On Ice - Seal Hunt, Seeking Polar Bear Dens, Spy Camera Demise
Here the teams for the Wednesday discussion papers, the guidelines for oral presentations and the link for the discussion paper for each week (also available on our catalyst site). Also, see our catalyst page for the link for submitting your question/comment in the weeks you are not presenting. Questions are due by 5pm on the Tuesday before the Wednesday of the discussion.
Paper for Wk2 Wednesday 6th April - Sea-ice Physics - Eryn, Gen, Miya,
Holland,M.K., C.M.Bitz and B.Tremblay (2006). Future abrupt reductions in the summer Arctic sea ice.; Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L23503, doi:10.1029/2006GL02824
Paper for Wk3 Wednesday 13th April - Sea-ice Biology - Ameer, Ian, Olivia
Campbell, K., C.J.Mundy, D.G.Barber, and M.Gosselin (2014). Characterizing the sea ice algae chlorophyll a-snow depth relationship over Arctic spring melt using transmitted irradiance, Journal of Marine Systems, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.01.008
Paper for Wk4 Wednesday 20th April - Ocean Circulation - Alexa, Marlena, Ty
Macdonald, R.S., E.C.Carmack, F.A.McLaughlin, K.K.Falkner and J.H.Swift (1999). Connections among ice, runoff and atmospheric forcing in the Beaufort Gyre, Geophys. Res. Letters, 26,15, 2223-2226
AND Li,W.K.W., F.A.McLaughlin, C.Lovejoy and E.C.Carmack (2009). Smallest Algae Thrive as the Arctic Ocean Freshens, Science, 326, 539
Paper for Wk5 Wednesday 27th April - Shelf Basin Interaction - Marine, Sam, Tasha
2011), Impact of an unusually large warm-core eddy on distributions of nutrients and phytoplankton in the southwestern Canada Basin during late summer/early fall 2010, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L16602, doi:, , , , and (10.1029/2011GL047885
Paper for Wk6 Wednesday 4th May - Ocean Biology - Heather, Shon, Zoe
Falardeau, M., D.Robert, and L.Fortier (2014). Could the planktonic stages of polar cod and Pacific sand lance compete for food in the warming Beaufort sea?, Ices Journal of Marine Science, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst221
Paper for Wk7 Wednesday 11th May - Bering Sea - Chris, Cory, Daniel
Ray, G.C., J.McCormick-Ray, P.Berg, and H.E.Epstein (2006). Pacific walrus: Benthic bioturbator of Beringia, J.Exp.Mar.Bio.Eco., 330, 403-419.
Paper for Wk8 Wednesday 18th May - Arctic Ramifications - Gerrad, Miranda, Phillip
Shakhova, N., I.Semiletov, I.Leifer, V.Sergienko, A.Salyuk, D.Kosmach, D.Chernykh, C.Stubbs, D.Nicolsky, V.Tumskoy, O.Gustafsson (2014), Ebullition and storm-induced methane release from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, Nature Geosci, 7(1), 64-70, doi: 10.1038/ngeo2007
Paper for Wk9 Wednesday 25th May - No paper, Healy Visit
Paper for Wk10 Wednesday 1st June - "Wild Card"- Jessica, Michael, Terryll
Carmack, E., and R.Macdonald (2008). Water and Ice-Related Phenomena in the Coastal Region of the Beaufort Sea: Some parallels between Native Experience and Western Science, Arctic, 61(3) 265-280.
Other useful links
As the class progresses, useful internet links will be posted here.
Jody Deming's research home page
Rebecca Woodgate's research home page
Keeping up to date with Arctic annoucements (usual reports, sometimes jobs or cruise openings)
Mailing list - ArcticInfo
Links to multidisciplinary Arctic planning and assessment papers
NOAA Arctic Change site - source for much basic information explaining aspects of Arctic change, with many links to useful sites. Good starting point to refresh your understanding of the basics, and get leads for areas of research. Written for the public rather than expert scientists.
NOAA Arctic Report Card 2015 - recent assessment of Arctic Change
ACIA (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment) - older, broader document (albeit challenged by a significant number of people) listing changes observed, written for scientists and policy makers. The Marine Chapter (Chapter 9) also contains many references which may be useful starting points for a literature search.
International Polar Year 2007-2009 - A special 2 years of international Arctic research
UW's Future of Ice
Email Jody Deming or Rebecca Woodgate or BOTH