UK Submarines


Scott Polar Research Institute-, University of Cambridge

Principal contact

Dr. Peter Wadhams, email:

Data web site


Upward Looking Sonar on submarines using Digital recording (1976) and analog charts (1987, 1991)


Arctic Ocean and Fram Strait

Time interval

1976, 1987, 1991

Data processing notes

See documentation. The point data at NSIDC for 50-km segments (interpolated to 1-m samples, gaps are interpolated) were summarized by R. Lindsay. Segments with a length of less than 25 km were dropped.

Number of samples

3 cruises, 7.7e6 point measurements, 176 50-km samples.


Point data


National Snow and Ice Data Center. 1998, updated 2006. Submarine upward looking sonar ice draft profile data and statistics. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology. Digital media

Wadhams, P., and R. J. Horne. 1980. An analysis of ice profiles obtained by submarine in the Beaufort Sea. Journal of Glaciology 25: 401-424.

Wadhams, P. 1984. Arctic sea ice morphology and its measurement. Arctic Technology and Policy. I. Dyer and C. Chryssostomidis, eds., Washington, D.C., Hemisphere Publishing Corp., 179-195


Preparation of the U.K. data was funded by a subcontract under a National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs project "Analysis of Arctic Ice Draft Profiles Obtained by Submarines." The data were processed by the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, with the cooperation of the Royal Navy and the U.K. Hydrographic Office. N.R Davis and P. Wadhams were involved in the production of the U.K. data.

Maps of the cruise tracks

UK76 map UK87 map UK87 map

Box plots of the distributions from each cruise.

UK76 boxplots

UK87 boxplots


UK91 boxplots

The box plots show the median (black) and the 5th, 25th, 75th, and 95th percentile values for each month. A star shows the mode.