Variability and Trends in Antarctic Sea Ice

Funded by NSF Antarctic Program
Jinlun Zhang
University of Washington

Introduction Model
Source Code


Zhang, J., R. Woodgate, and R. Moritz, Sea ice response to atmospheric and oceanic forcing in the Bering Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., accepted, 2010.

Wang, J., J. Zhang, E. Watanabe, M. Ikeda, K. Mizobata, J. E. Walsh, X. Bai, and B. Wu, Is the Dipole Anomaly a major driver to record lows in Arctic summer sea ice extent?, Geophys. Res Lett., 36, L05706, doi:10.1029/2008GL036706, 2009.

Rawlins, M.A., M. Steele, M.C. Serreze, C.J. Vorosmarty, W. Ermold, R.B. Lammers, K.C. McDonald, T.M.Pavelsky, A. Shiklomanov, and J. Zhang, Tracing freshwater anomalies through the air-land-ocean system: A case study from the Mackenzie River basin and the Beaufort Gyre, Atmosphere-Ocean 47(1), 79-97, doi:10.3137/OC301.2009, 2009.

Lindsay, R. W., J. Zhang, A. Schweiger, M. Steele, and H. Stern, Arctic sea ice retreat in 2007 follows thinning trend. J. Clim., 22, 165-176, doi:10.1175/2008JCL12521, 2009.

Zhang, J., M. Steele, and R. Woodgate, The role of Pacific water in the dramatic retreat of arctic sea ice during summer 2007, J. Polar Science, accepted, 2008.

Kwok, R., E. C. Hunke, W. Maslowski, D. Menemenlis, and J. Zhang, Variability of sea ice simulations assessed with RGPS kinematics, J. Geophys Res., 113, C11012, doi: 10.1029/2008JC004783, 2008.

Zhang, J., R.W. Lindsay , M. Steele, and A. Schweiger, What drove the dramatic retreat of Arctic sea ice during summer 2007? Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11505, doi:10.1029/2008GL034005, 2008.

Schweiger, A., J. Zhang, R.W. Lindsay, and M. Steele, Did unusually sunny skies help drive the record sea ice minimum of 2007? Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L10503, doi:10.1029/2008GL033463, 2008.

Zhang, J., M. Steele, R.W. Lindsay, A. Schweiger, and J. Morison, Ensemble one-year predictions of arctic sea ice for the spring and summer of 2008. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08502, doi:10.1029/2008GL033244, 2008.

Steele, M., W. Ermold, and J. Zhang, Arctic Ocean surface warming trends over the past 100 years, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L02614, 2008.

Lindsay, R. W., J. Zhang, A. Schweiger, and M. Steele, Seasonal predictions of ice extent in the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 113, C02023, doi:10.1029/2007JC004259, 2008.

Zhang, J., Increasing Antarctic sea ice under warming atmospheric and oceanic conditions, J. Climate, 2025152529,  2007.

Serreze, M. C., A. P. Barrett, A. G. Slater, M. Steele, J. Zhang, and K. E. Trenberth, The large-scale energy budget of the Arctic, J. Geophys Res., 112, D11122, doi: 10.1029/2006JD008230, 2007.

Proshutinsky, A. et al. including J. Zhang, Sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean from AOMIP models, J. Geophys. Res.,112, C04S08, doi:10.1029/2006JC003916, 2007.

Karcher, M., F. Kauker, R. Gerdes, E. Hunke, and J. Zhang, On the dynamics of Atlantic Water circulation in the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res.,112, C04S02, doi:10.1029/2006JC003630, 2007.

Häkkinen, S., F. Dupont, M. Karcher, F. Kauker, D. Worthen, and J. Zhang, Model simulation of Greenland Sea upper-ocean variability, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C06S90, doi:10.1029/2006JC003687, 2007.

Zhang, J., and M. Steele, The effect of vertical mixing on the Atlantic water layer circulation in the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res.,112, C04S04, doi:10.1029/2006JC003732, 2007.

Holloway G., F. Dupont, E. Golubeva, S. Hakkinen, E. Hunke, M. Jin, M. Karcher, F. Kauker, M. Maltrud, M. A. Morales Maqueda, W. Maslowski, G. Platov, D. Stark, M. Steele, T. Suzuki, J. Wang, and J. Zhang, Water properties and circulation in Arctic Ocean models, J. Geophys Res., 112, C04S03, doi:10.1029/2006JC003642, 2007.

Lindsay, R. W. and J. Zhang, Assimilation of ice concentration in an ice-ocean model, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 23, 742749, 2006.

Lindsay, R. W. and J. Zhang, Arctic Ocean ice thickness: modes of variability and the best loca­tions from which to monitor them, J. Physical Ocean., 36, 496–506, 2006.

Steele, M., A. Porcelli, and J. Zhang, Origins of the SHEBA freshwater anomaly in the Mackenzie RiverGeophys. Res. Lett., 33, L09601, doi:10.1029/2005GL024813, 2006.

Proshutinsky, A. et al. including J. Zhang, Arctic Ocean study: Synthesis of model results and observations, EOS, 40(4), 2005.

Zhang, J., Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global average since the 1960s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L19602, doi:10.1029/2005GL024216, 2005.

Lindsay, R. W. and J. Zhang, The thinning of arctic sea ice, 1988–2003: have we passed a tipping point? J. Climate, 18,  48794894, 2005.

Menemenis, D., C. Hill, A. Adcroft, J.-M. Campin, B. Cheng, B. Ciotti, I. Fukumori, P. Heimbach, C. Henze, A. Kohl, T. Lee, D. Stammer, J. Taft, and J. Zhang, NASA supercomputer improves prospects for ocean climate research, EOS, 86(9), 2005.

Zhang, J., and D.A. Rothrock, The effect of sea-ice rheology in numerical investigations of climate, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C08014, doi:10.1029/2004JC002599, 2005.

Rothrock, D.A., and J. Zhang: Arctic Ocean sea ice volume: What explains its recent depletion? J. Geophys. Res., 110, C01002, doi:10.1029/2004JC002282, 2005.

Zhang, J., M. Steele, D.A. Rothrock, and R.W. Lindsay, Increasing exchanges at Greenland-Scotland Ridge and their links with the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic sea ice, Geophys. Res. Letters, 31, L09307, doi:10.1029/2003GL019304, 2004.

Uotila, P., D.M. Holland, M.A. Morales Maqueda, S. Hakkinen, G. Holloway, M. Karcher, M. Steele, N. Yakovlev, J. Zhang, A. Proshutinsky: An energy-diagnostics intercomparison of coupled ice-ocean Arctic models, Ocean Modeling, 11, 1-27, 2005.

Steiner, N., G. Holloway, S. Hakkinen, D.M. Holland, M. Karcher, W. Maslowski, M. Steele, and J. Zhang: Comparing modeled streamfunction, heat and freshwater con­tent in the Arctic Ocean, Ocean Modeling, 6, 265-284, 2004.

Zhang, J., and D.A. Rothrock: Modeling global sea ice with a thickness and enthalpy distribution model in generalized curvilinear coordinates, Mon. Wea. Rev., 131(5),  681-697, 2003.

Lindsay, R.W., J. Zhang, and D.A. Rothrock: Sea ice deformation rates from measure­ments and in a model, Atmos-ocean, 41(1), 35-47, 2003.

Rothrock, D.A., J. Zhang, and Y. Yu: The Arctic ice thickness anomaly of the 1990s: A consistent view from models and observations, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C3), doi:10.1029/2001JC001208, 2003.

Zhang, J., D. Thomas, D. A. Rothrock, R. Lindsay, Y. Yu, and R. Kwok: Assimilation of ice motion observations and comparisons with submarine ice thickness data, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C6), 3170, doi:10.1029/2001JC001041, 2003.

Zhang, J., and D.A. Rothrock: A thickness and enthalpy distribution sea-ice model, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2986-3001, 2001.

Steele, M., W. Ermold, S. Häkkinen, D. Holland, G. Holloway, M. Karcher, F. Kauker, W. Maslowski, N. Steiner, and J. Zhang, Adrift in the Beaufort gyre: A model inter­comparison, Geophys. Res. Lett, 28(15), 2935-2938, 2001.

Yu, Y., D.A. Rothrock, and J. Zhang: Thin ice impacts on surface salt flux and ice strength: Inferences from advanced very high resolution radiometer, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 13,975-13,988, 2001.

Proshutinsky, A., M. Steele, J. Zhang, G. Holloway, N. Steiner, S. Häkkinen, D.M. Holland, R. Gerdes, C. Koeberle, M. Karcher, M. Johnson, W. Maslowski, W. Walc­zowski, W. Hibler, and J. Wang: Multinational effort studies differences among Arc­tic Ocean models. EOS, 82(51), 637-644, 2001.

Zhang, J., D.A. Rothrock, and M. Steele: Recent changes in Arctic Sea ice: The inter­play between ice dynamics and thermodynamics, J. Climate, 13, 3099-3114, 2000.

Zhang, J. and D.A. Rothrock: Modeling Arctic Sea ice with an efficient plastic solution, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 3325-3338, 2000.

Forman, S.L., W. Maslowski, J.T. Andrews, D. Lubinski, M. Steele, J. Zhang, R. Lammers and B. Peterson: Researchers Explore Arctic Freshwater’s Role in Ocean Circulation, EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 81(16), pages 169, 174, 2000.

Zhang, J., D.A. Rothrock, and M. Steele: Warming of the Arctic Ocean by a strengthened Atlantic inflow: Model results, Geophys. Res. Letters, 25, 1745-1748, 1998.

Zhang, J., W.D. Hibler, M. Steele, and D.A. Rothrock: Arctic ice-ocean modeling with and without climate restoring, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 191-217, 1998.

Zhang, J. and W.D. Hibler: On an efficient numerical method for modeling sea ice dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 8691-8702, 1997.

Steele, M., J. Zhang, D.A. Rothrock, and H. Stern: The force balance of sea ice in a numerical model of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 21061-21079, 1997.

Introduction Model
Source Code