Projections of an Ice-Diminished Arctic Ocean
- Retrospection and Future Projection

   Jinlun Zhang, D. Andrew Rothrock, and Michael Steele

  Polar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington
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Funded by The National Science Foundation Arctic Program, Grant OPP0240916

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Zhang, J., Increasing Antarctic sea ice under warming atmospheric and oceanic conditions, J. Climate, 2025152529,  2007.

Proshutinsky, A. et al. including J. Zhang, Sea level variability in the Arctic Ocean from AOMIP models, J. Geophys. Res.,112, C04S08, doi:10.1029/2006JC003916, 2007.

Karcher, M., F. Kauker, R. Gerdes, E. Hunke, and J. Zhang, On the dynamics of Atlantic Water circulation in the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res.,112, C04S02, doi:10.1029/2006JC003630, 2007.

Zhang, J., and M. Steele, The effect of vertical mixing on the Atlantic water layer circulation in the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res.,112, C04S04, doi:10.1029/2006JC003732, 2007.

Lindsay, R. W. and J. Zhang, Assimilation of ice concentration in an ice-ocean model, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 23, 742749, 2006.

Lindsay, R. W. and J. Zhang, Arctic Ocean ice thickness: modes of variability and the best loca­tions from which to monitor them, J. Physical Ocean., 36, 496–506, 2006.

Steele, M., A. Porcelli, and J. Zhang, Origins of the SHEBA freshwater anomaly in the Mackenzie RiverGeophys. Res. Lett., 33, L09601, doi:10.1029/2005GL024813, 2006.

Proshutinsky, A. et al. including J. Zhang, Arctic Ocean study: Synthesis of model results and observations, EOS, 40(4), 2005.

Zhang, J., Warming of the arctic ice-ocean system is faster than the global average since the 1960s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L19602, doi:10.1029/2005GL024216, 2005.

Lindsay, R. W. and J. Zhang, The thinning of arctic sea ice, 1988–2003: have we passed a tipping point? J. Climate, 18,  48794894, 2005.

Menemenis, D., C. Hill, A. Adcroft, J.-M. Campin, B. Cheng, B. Ciotti, I. Fukumori, P. Heimbach, C. Henze, A. Kohl, T. Lee, D. Stammer, J. Taft, and J. Zhang, NASA supercomputer improves prospects for ocean climate research, EOS, 86(9), 2005.

Zhang, J., and D.A. Rothrock, The effect of sea-ice rheology in numerical investigations of climate, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C08014, doi:10.1029/2004JC002599, 2005.

Rothrock, D.A., and J. Zhang: Arctic Ocean sea ice volume: What explains its recent depletion? J. Geophys. Res., 110, C01002, doi:10.1029/2004JC002282, 2005.

Zhang, J., M. Steele, D.A. Rothrock, and R.W. Lindsay, Increasing exchanges at Greenland-Scotland Ridge and their links with the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic sea ice, Geophys. Res. Letters, 31, L09307, doi:10.1029/2003GL019304, 2004.

Uotila, P., D.M. Holland, M.A. Morales Maqueda, S. Hakkinen, G. Holloway, M. Karcher, M. Steele, N. Yakovlev, J. Zhang, A. Proshutinsky: An energy-diagnostics intercomparison of coupled ice-ocean Arctic models, Ocean Modeling, 11, 1-27, 2005.

Steiner, N., G. Holloway, S. Hakkinen, D.M. Holland, M. Karcher, W. Maslowski, M. Steele, and J. Zhang: Comparing modeled streamfunction, heat and freshwater con­tent in the Arctic Ocean, Ocean Modeling, 6, 265-284, 2004.

Zhang, J., and D.A. Rothrock: Modeling global sea ice with a thickness and enthalpy distribution model in generalized curvilinear coordinates, Mon. Wea. Rev., 131(5),  681-697, 2003.

Lindsay, R.W., J. Zhang, and D.A. Rothrock: Sea ice deformation rates from measure­ments and in a model, Atmos-ocean, 41(1), 35-47, 2003.

Rothrock, D.A., J. Zhang, and Y. Yu: The Arctic ice thickness anomaly of the 1990s: A consistent view from models and observations, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C3), doi:10.1029/2001JC001208, 2003.

Zhang, J., D. Thomas, D. A. Rothrock, R. Lindsay, Y. Yu, and R. Kwok: Assimilation of ice motion observations and comparisons with submarine ice thickness data, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C6), 3170, doi:10.1029/2001JC001041, 2003.

Zhang, J., and D.A. Rothrock: A thickness and enthalpy distribution sea-ice model, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2986-3001, 2001.

Steele, M., W. Ermold, S. Häkkinen, D. Holland, G. Holloway, M. Karcher, F. Kauker, W. Maslowski, N. Steiner, and J. Zhang, Adrift in the Beaufort gyre: A model inter­comparison, Geophys. Res. Lett, 28(15), 2935-2938, 2001.

Yu, Y., D.A. Rothrock, and J. Zhang: Thin ice impacts on surface salt flux and ice strength: Inferences from advanced very high resolution radiometer, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 13,975-13,988, 2001.

Proshutinsky, A., M. Steele, J. Zhang, G. Holloway, N. Steiner, S. Häkkinen, D.M. Holland, R. Gerdes, C. Koeberle, M. Karcher, M. Johnson, W. Maslowski, W. Walc­zowski, W. Hibler, and J. Wang: Multinational effort studies differences among Arc­tic Ocean models. EOS, 82(51), 637-644, 2001.

Zhang, J., D.A. Rothrock, and M. Steele: Recent changes in Arctic Sea ice: The inter­play between ice dynamics and thermodynamics, J. Climate, 13, 3099-3114, 2000.

Zhang, J. and D.A. Rothrock: Modeling Arctic Sea ice with an efficient plastic solution, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 3325-3338, 2000.

Forman, S.L., W. Maslowski, J.T. Andrews, D. Lubinski, M. Steele, J. Zhang, R. Lammers and B. Peterson: Researchers Explore Arctic Freshwater’s Role in Ocean Circulation, EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 81(16), pages 169, 174, 2000.

Zhang, J., D.A. Rothrock, and M. Steele: Warming of the Arctic Ocean by a strengthened Atlantic inflow: Model results, Geophys. Res. Letters, 25, 1745-1748, 1998.

Zhang, J., W.D. Hibler, M. Steele, and D.A. Rothrock: Arctic ice-ocean modeling with and without climate restoring, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 191-217, 1998.

Zhang, J. and W.D. Hibler: On an efficient numerical method for modeling sea ice dynamics, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 8691-8702, 1997.

Steele, M., J. Zhang, D.A. Rothrock, and H. Stern: The force balance of sea ice in a numerical model of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 21061-21079, 1997.

[ Home ] [ Introduction ] [ Model ] [ Retrospection ] [ Future Projection ] [ Data ] [Source Code] [ Publications ] [ Links ]